Indira Gandhi--->

इंदिरा गांधी (नोव्हेंबर १९,१९१७ - ऑक्टोबर ३१,१९८४) या भारताच्या पहिल्या महिला पंतप्रधान होत्या....इंदिराजींचा जन्म १९ नोव्हेंबर १९१७ रोजी अलाहाबाद येथे झाला. स्वातंत्र्य चळवळीत त्यांनी लहानपणापासूनच भाग घेतला. वयाच्या अवघ्या ११ व्या वर्षी त्यांनी काही स्वातंत्र्यसैनिकांच्या मदतीने अलाहाबादेतील मुलांची १९३० साली "वानर सेना' नावाची संघटना स्थापन केली. वयाच्या २१ व्या वर्षी त्यांनी राष्ट्रीय काँग्रेसमध्ये प्रवेश केला.....इंदिरा गांधी पंतप्रधान झाल्या तरी काँग्रेस मध्ये फुट पडली. राममनोहर लोहिया हे त्यांना गुंगी गुडिया म्हणुन संबोधायचे. अखेर १९६७ च्या निवडणुकात काँग्रेसचे ६० जागांचे नुकसान झाले. ५४५ पैकी २९७ जागांवर विजय मिळवुन सत्ता मिळाली. मोरारजी देसाई यांना उपपंतप्रधानपद आणि अर्थमंत्री पद द्यावे लागले. तरी अखेर १९६९ मध्ये मोरारजी सोबतच्या वादांनी काँग्रेसची २ शकले झाली. इतर पक्षांचा पाठिंबा मिळ्वुन त्यांनी सरकार वाचवले. जुलै १९६९ मध्येच त्यांनी बँकाचे राष्ट्रीयकरण केल....

December 20, 2010

सर्वसाधारण माहिती:महाराष्ट्र (MPSC-PREPARATION )

मेळघाट अभयारण्य
महाराष्ट्राच्या प्रमुख अभयारण्य व व्याघ्रप्रकल्पांपैकी एक. गुगामल राष्ट्रीय उद्यान याच अभयारण्याचे पूर्वीचे गाभा क्षेत्र होते. येथील जंगल प्रकार हा पानगळी प्रकारात येतो. या अभयारण्यात सागाची झाडे मोठ्या प्रमाणावर आहेत.
अमरावती जिल्ह्याच्या उत्तरेकडे सातपुडा पर्वतरांगा असून या रांगांच्या उत्तरेकडे मध्य प्रदेश राज्य आहे. चिखलदरा व धारणी या तालुक्यांतील हा डोंगराळ भाग मेळघाट नावाने ओळखला जात असून याच ठिकाणी हे अभयारण्य आणि व्याघ्रप्रकल्प आहे. या परिसरात कोरकू आदिवासी जमात राहत असून इतरही समाजांचे लोक राहतात. मेळघाटमध्ये 'सिपना' (अर्थ सागवान) नदी महत्त्वाची आहे. मेळघाट हा महाराष्ट्रातील एकमेव व्य़ाघ्रप्रकल्प आहे. ह प्रकल्प अमरावती जिल्ह्यात आहे.
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बीड कनकालेश्वर् मन्दिर परळी वैजनाथ-बारा ज्योतिर्लिन्गापैकि यक्(जिल्हा-बीड)
शेगाव येथे संत श्री गजानन महाराज समाधि आहे. सिंदखेडराजा येथे छत्रपति शिवाजी महाराजांच्या मातोश्री जिजाउचा जन्म झाला.

लोणार येथे उल्कापातामुळे तयार झालेले जगप्रसिध्द सरोवर आहे.(बुलढाणा जिल्हा)

बारा ज्योतिर्लिंगापैकी आठवे ज्योतिर्लिंग "नागनाथ" हे पांडवकालीन मंदिर आहे(हिंगोली जिल्हा)

सिंहगड-पुण्यापासून अंदाजे ३०-३५ कि.मी. अंतरावर असणारा हा किल्ला नावाप्रमाणेच भक्कम आहे. तानाजी मालुसरे यांच्या सिंहासारख्या कामगिरीमुळे मूळच्या कोंडाणा किल्ल्याचे नाव 'सिंहगड' झाले. गडावरील देव टाके थंड आणि गोड पाण्यासाठी प्रसिद्ध आहे. गडावर राजाराम महाराज यांची समाधी आणि तानाजी मालुसरे यांचे स्मारक आह

भुलेश्वर:पुण्यापासून अंदाजे ५० कि.मी. वर भुलेश्वर हे देवस्थान आहे. हे बहुधा पांडवकालीन असावे. मूर्तिकाम पाहण्यासारखे आहे. लढायांच्या धामधुमीत बर्‍यायाच मूर्तींची तोडफोड झालेली दिसते. गणपतीची स्त्री रूपातील भारतातील कदाचित एकुलती मूर्ती या मंदिरात आहे.

कार्ला लेणी:पुण्यापासून अंदाजे ४० किलोमीटरवर वर कार्ल्याची प्रसिध्द लेणी आहेत. ही लेणी ख्रिस्तपूर्व दुसर्‍या शतकातील आहेत. ही बौद्ध लेणी म्हणजे स्थापत्यशास्त्राचे एक अप्रतिम उदाहरण आहे. 
भीमाशंकर
भीमाशंकर हे भारतातील पुणे जिल्ह्यातील प्रमुख तीर्थक्षेत्र आहे. या ठिकाणावरील सर्वात प्रसिद्ध गोष्ट आहे म्हणजे येथील ज्योतिर्लिंग मंदीर. भारतातील बारा ज्योतिर्लिंगा पैकी एक येथे आहे. येथील ज्योतिर्लिंगामधून भीमा नदी उगम पावते जी पश्चिम महाराष्ट्रातील एक प्रमुख नदी आहे.

भीमाशंकर हे ठिकाण सह्याद्रीच्या प्रमुख रांगेत असून अतिशय घनदाट अरण्याने वेढले आहे. १९८४ साली या अरण्याची अभयारण्य म्हणून घोषणा झाली. जंगलात विविध प्रकारचे प्राणी पक्षी आढळतात.
अक्कलकोट स्वामी समर्थ भक्तांसाठी प्रसिध्द आह (सोलापूर).
गणपतीपुळे हे रत्नागिरी जिल्ह्यातील प्रसिद्ध पर्यटनस्थळ आहे. येथील गणपतीची मूर्ती स्वयंभू आहे 

बारा ज्योतिर्लिंग मंदिरे:सोरठी सोमनाथ • नागेश्वर •महांकालेश्वर • श्रीशैल्यम्‌ मल्लिकार्जुन • भीमाशंकर • ओंकारेश्वर • केदारनाथ • विश्वेश्वर •त्र्यंबकेश्वर • रामेश्वर • घृष्णेश्वर • वैजनाथ 

December 19, 2010

पुरस्कार -पुरस्कारविजेते

 ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार:-
देशाच्या साहित्य क्षेत्रातला सर्वोच्च प्रतिष्ठेचा म्हणून ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार ओळखला जातो.ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कारात 'पुरस्कार-पत्र', 'वाक्देवीची प्रतीमा' आणि 'पाच लाख रुपयांचा धनादेश' ईत्यादिंचा समावेश असत
ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार भारतीय शासनातर्फे साहित्याच्या क्षेत्रात दिल्या जाणारा सर्वोच्च पुरस्कार आहे. इ.स. १९६१ साली या पुरस्काराची अधिकृत घोषणा झाली आणि इ.स. १९६५ साली प्रसिद्ध मल्याळम लेखक जी. शंकर कुरूप हे या पुरस्काराचे प्रथम मानकरी ठरले. आजपर्यंत सर्वाधिक वेळा पुरस्कार मिळाविण्याचा मान सात वेळा कन्नड आणि सहा वेळा हिंदी साहित्यिकांना मिळाला आहे. मराठी साहित्यिकांना तीन वेळा ह्या बहुमानाचा लाभ झाला असून विष्णू वामन शिरवाडकर, गोविंद विनायक करंदीकर आणि विष्णु सखाराम खांडेकर हे पुरस्कारविजेते मराठी साहित्यिक होय.
इ.स. २०००  इंदिरा गोस्वामी - आसामी
इ.स. २००१  राजेंद्र केशवलाल शाह - गुजराती
इ.स. २००२  दंडपाणी जयकांतन - तमिळ
इ.स. २००३  विंदा करंदीकर- अष्टदर्शने  मराठी
इ.स. २००६ रवींद्र केळेकर - कोकण

जनस्थान पुरस्कार:-
जनस्थान पुरस्कार हा मराठी साहित्यातील सर्वोच्च पुरस्कारांमध्ये गणला जातो.कविश्रेष्ठ श्री वि.वा. शिरवाडकरांनी साहित्यिकांना मराठी साहित्यातील उल्लेखनीय योगदानाबद्दल ह्या पुरस्काराने सन्मानीत करण्यास सुरूवात केली.

आता हा पुरस्कार नाशिक येथील कुसुमाग्रज प्रतिष्ठान तर्फे दर दोन वर्षांनी कुसुमाग्रजांच्या स्मृतिदिनी प्रदान केला जात.
पुरस्कार प्राप्त साहित्यीक:
२००९: ना.धों. महानोर
२००७: बाबूराव बागूल
२००५: नारायण सुर्वे
२००३: मंगेश पाडगावकर
२००१: श्री.ना. पेंडसे
१९९९: व्यंकटेश माडगूळकर
१९९७: गंगाधर गाडगीळ
१९९५: इंदिरा संत
१९९३: विंदा करंदीकर
१९९१: विजय तेंडुलकर

तन्वीर सन्मान:-
डॉ. श्रीराम लागू आणि दीपा लागू यांच्या दिवंगत मुलाच्या नावाने "तन्वीर सन्मान' हा पुरस्कार दिला जातो. ९ डिसेंबर इ.स. २००८ मध्ये पं. सत्यदेव दुबे यांना दिला गेला.

या शिवाय पुरस्काराच्या 'तन्वीर रंगधर्मी' हा पुरस्कारही दिला जातो. ९ डिसेंबर इ.स. २००८मध्ये हा पुरस्कार अभिनेता गजानन परांजपे यांना दिला गेला

साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार:-
साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार साहित्याच्या क्षेत्रात महत्त्वाचे योगदान करणार्‍यांना विविध भाषांतील साहित्यिकांना दिला जातो. साहित्यिकांमध्ये मानाचे स्थान असणाऱ्या या पुरस्काराचे वितरण दिल्ली येथे होते. पन्नास हजार रुपये रोख आणि स्मृतिचिन्ह असे पुरस्काराचे स्वरूप आहे.

इ.स.२००८ साल चा साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार मराठीतील लेखक व कादंबरीकार श्याम मनोहर यांना मिळाला आहे. हा पुरस्कार त्यांना "उत्सुकतेने मी झोपलो' या कादंबरी साठी मिळाला.साहित्य अकादमी पुरस्कार साहित्याच्या क्षेत्रात महत्त्वाचे योगदान करणार्‍यांना विविध भाषांतील साहित्यिकांना दिला जातो. साहित्यिकांमध्ये मानाचे स्थान असणाऱ्या या पुरस्काराचे वितरण दिल्ली येथे होते. पन्नास हजार रुपये रोख आणि स्मृतिचिन्ह असे पुरस्काराचे स्वरूप आहे.

 खालील २४ भारतीय भाषांमधील योगदानासाठी हा पुरस्कार देण्यात येतो.


आसामी, बंगाली, बोडो, डोग्री, इंग्लीश, गुजराथी, हिंदी, कन्नड, कश्मिरी, कोंकणी, मैथीली, मलयालम, मणिपुरी, मराठी, नेपाळी, ओरिया, पंजाबी, राजस्थानी, संस्कृत, संथाली, सिंधी, तामिळ, तेलगू, व उर्दू
मराठीतील पुरस्कार विजेते:-
२००० – ना.धों. महानोर – 'पानझड'
२००१ – राजन गवस – 'टणकट'
२००२ – महेश एलकुंचवार – 'युगांत'
२००३ – त्र्यंबक विनायक सरदेशमुख – 'डांगोरा एका नगरीचा'
२००४ - सदानंद देशमुख - 'बारोमास'
२००५ - अरूण कोलटकर - भिजकी वही
२००६ - आशा बगे - भूमी
२००७ - जि. एम. पवार - विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे: जिवन व कार्य
२००८ - श्याम मनोहर - 'उत्सुकतेने मी झोपलो'
२००९ - वसंत आबाजी डहाके - 'चित्रलिपी' काव्यसंग्रह.


कलिंग पुरस्कार:
कलिंग पुरस्कार हा ओरिसा सरकारच्या वतीने युनेस्को द्वारा दिला जातो.

सामान्य व्यक्तींना विज्ञानाचा फायदा करून देण्यासाठी काम करणार्‍या व्यक्तींना हा पुरस्कार प्रदान करण्यात येतो

पद्मविभूषण पुरस्कार:-
द्मविभूषण हा भारतातील दुसर्‍या क्रमांकाचा नागरी सन्मान आहे. यामध्ये एक पदक आणि प्रशस्तीपत्र भारतीय राष्ट्रपतींच्या हस्ते दिले जाते.

जानेवारी २, १९५४ मध्ये याची स्थापना करण्यात आली. याचे महत्त्व भारतरत्न पेक्षा कमी आणि पद्मभूषण पेक्षा जास्त असे समजले जाते. कोणत्याही क्षेत्रात देशाचे नाव उज्ज्वल करणार्‍या लोकांना हा पुरस्कार दिला जातो. जुलै १३, १९७७ ते जानेवारी २६, १९८० पर्यंत हा पुरस्कार स्थगीत करण्यात आला होता.

सुरुवातीच्या काळात १.३७५ इंच व्यासाचे गोलाकार सुवर्णपदक पद्मविभूषण पुरस्कारासाठी तयार करण्यात आले होते. त्यावर मधोमध उठावाचे नक्षीकाम केलेले कमळ, पद्मविभूषण अशी अक्षरे आणि खालच्या बाजूला कमळाच्या फुलांचे चक्र होते. दुसर्‍या बाजूस सरकारी राजमुद्रा, देश सेवा अशी कोरलेली अक्षरे आणि कमळाच्या फुलांचे चक्र होते. पण अशा पदकाची फक्त नोंद सापडते ती कुणाला प्रदान करण्यात आल्याचा कुठेही उल्लेख सापडत नाही.

लगेचच दुसर्‍या वर्षी, म्हणजे १९५५ साली या पदकाचं स्वरुप बदलण्यात आलं. सोन्याऐवजी कांस्य धातूच्या १.१८७५ इंच व्यासाचे साधारण गोलाकार पदक तयार करण्यात आले. पदकाच्या एका बाजूला उठावदार कमळ कोरण्यात आले. त्याच्या समोरच्या चार पाकळ्या पांढर्‍या सोन्याने (सोने आणि निकेल किंवा सोने आणि पॅलाडियम धातूंपासून बनविलेला मिश्र धातू) मढविल्या गेल्या. वरच्या आणि खालच्या बाजूस चांदीचा मुलामा असलेली अनुक्रमे पद्म आणि विभूषण अशी अक्षरे कोरली केली. १९५५ पासून १९५७ पर्यंत ही अशी पदके वितरित करण्यात आली. त्यानंतर १९५८ सालापासून आजपर्यंत याच्या स्वरुपामध्ये ब्रॉन्झच्या धातूतील थोडा केलेला बदल वगळता कोणताही बदल करण्यात आलेला नाही. या पदकाच्या वरच्या बाजूला फिक्या गुलाबी रंगाची रिबन लावलेली असते.

सन २०१० पर्यंत एकूण २६४ थोर व्यक्तींना पद्मविभूषण पुरस्काराने गौरविण्यात आले आहे. अभिमान वाटावा अशी बाब म्हणजे दिल्लीच्या खालोखाल महाराष्ट्राच्या भूमीत जन्मलेल्या किंवा महाराष्ट्र भूमी ही कार्यक्षेत्र असलेल्या व्यक्तींना हा पुरस्कार प्राप्त झालेला आहे.

महाराष्ट्रातील पद्मविभूषणप्राप्त महान विभूतींची संख्या ४९ आहे, तर ५० दिल्लीवासियांनी हा पुरस्कार प्राप्त केलेला आहे
पुरस्कार विजेते:- 

२००९ चंद्रिकाप्रसाद श्रीवास्तव    नागरी सेवा      महाराष्ट्र भारत
२००९ सुंदरलाल बहुगुणा     पर्यावरण संरक्षण     उत्तराखंड भारत
२००९ डी.पी. चट्टोपाध्याय      साहित्य व शिक्षण    पश्चिम बंगाल भारत
२००९ जसबीरसिंग बजाज      वैद्यकशास्त्र    पंजाब भारत
२००९ पुरुषोत्तम लाल     वैद्यकशास्त्र     उत्तर प्रदेश भारत
२००९ गोविंद नारायण    सार्वजनिक कार्य     उत्तर प्रदेश भारत
२००९ अनिल काकोडकर    विज्ञान व तंत्रज्ञान    महाराष्ट्र भारत
२००९ जी.माधवन नायर    विज्ञान व तंत्रज्ञान    कर्नाटक भारत
२००९ सिस्टर निर्मला   सामाजिक कार्य    पश्चिम बंगाल भारत
२००९ ए.एस. गांगुली  व्यापार व उद्योग   महाराष्ट्र भारत

प्रथम पुरस्कारविजेते    सत्येन्द्र नाथ बसु  
(source:http://mr.wikipedia.org) 

दिनविशेष : preparation for state services exam 2011

जानेवारी=दिनविशेष
  • जानेवारी १:-
१८४८ - महात्मा जोतिबा फुले आणि सावित्रीबाई फुले यांनी पुण्यात भिडे वाड्यात मुलींची पहिली शाळा सुरु केली.
  • जानेवारी २:-
१७५७ - ब्रिटीश ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनीने कोलकाता जिंकून आपल्या साम्राज्याची मुहुर्तमेढ रोवली.
१९५४ - भारतरत्न या सर्वोच्च किताबाची स्थापना तत्कालीन राष्ट्रपती डॉ. राजेंद्र प्रसाद यांनी केली.
  • जानेवारी 4
१८८१ - लोकमान्य टिळकांनी केसरी वृत्तपत्र सुरू केले
१९१४ - मराठी कवियत्री इंदिरा संत यांचा जन्म.
  • जानेवारी ५
१६७१ - छत्रपती शिवाजी महाराजांनी साल्हेर मुघलांकडून काबीज केले
  • जानेवारी ६:-
जन्म:१९२८ - विजय तेंडुलकर, ज्येष्ठ नाटककार, साहित्यिक, चित्रपटकथा लेखक.

  • जानेवारी ८:
२००६ - मराठी साहित्यिक विंदा करंदीकर यांना ज्ञानपीठ पुरस्कार जाहीर.
  • जानेवारी १५:-
मृत्यू:१९९८ - गुलझारीलाल नंदा, भारतीय पंतप्रधान, स्वातंत्र्यसैनिक व गांधीवादी कार्यकर्त 
  • जानेवारी १९:
१९६६ - इंदिरा गांधी भारताच्या पंतप्रधानपदी

  • जानेवारी २०:
१९४८ - नथुराम गोडसेने महात्मा गांधींचा (चित्रीत) पिस्तुलाने खून केला.
जन्म:१८७१ - सर रतनजी जमशेदजी टाटा, भारतीय उद्योगपती.
  • जानेवारी २३:
जन्म:
१८९७ - नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस, भारतीय स्वातंत्रसेनान
  • जानेवारी २६ : भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक दिन 
  • जानेवारी २८:
२००३ - मंगेश पाडगावकरांना जनस्थान पुरस्कार जाहीर.

  • जानेवारी २९:
१७८० - हिकीज बेंगाल गॅझेट हे भारतातील पहिले वर्तमानपत्र सुरु.

जानेवारी ३०: १९४८ - नथुराम गोडसेने महात्मा गांधींचा (चित्रीत) पिस्तुलाने खून केला.

 

December 18, 2010

राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा २०११(MPSC State Services Preliminary Examination 2011)--भूगोल1

गोदावरी नदी:
गोदावरीचा उगम नाशिकजवळ त्र्यंबकेश्वर या ठिकाणी महाराष्ट्र राज्यात होतो. साधारणत: आग्नेय दिशेला वाहून गोदावरी राजमुंद्रीजवळ बंगालच्या उपसागरास आंध्रप्रदेशात मिळते.
समुद्रास मिळण्यापूर्वी दोन उपवाहिन्यांमध्ये विभाजन होते. त्यांना गौतमी नदी आणि वसिष्ठा नदी असे म्हणतात.गोदावरीस महाराष्ट्र व आंध्र प्रदेश राज्यांची जीवनवाहिनी समजतात.
उगम त्र्यंबकेश्वर १,६२० मी.
लांबी    १,४६५ कि.मी.
उपनद्या    इंद्रावती, मंजिरा, बिंदुसरा
धरण    गंगापूर(नाशिक), नांदूर मधमेश्वर(नाशिक), डौलेश्वरम

जायकवाडी धरण हे गोदावरी नदीवर असलेले महाराष्ट्रातील एक प्रमुख धरण आहे. विदर्भातील जवळजवळ २.४० लाख हेक्टर क्षेत्र या धरणामुळे ओलिताखाली आलेले आह

December 17, 2010

All about WikiLeaks

Slogan    We open governments.

What is WikiLeaks ?
WikiLeaks is an international new media non-profit organisation that publishes submissions of otherwise unavailable documents from anonymous news sources and news leaks. Its website, launched in 2006, is run by The Sunshine Press.

Who is founder of WikiLeaks  ?
Julian Assange 

Let;s know him...
Assange was reportedly born in 1971 in the city of Townsville, northeastern Australia. He was mostly homeschooled as a child, thanks in large part to his already peripatetic existence: by the time he was 14, he and his mother had reportedly moved 37 times.

•After his mother's relationship with a musician turned violent, Assange lived on the run between the ages of 11 and 16.

•When Assange turned 16, he began hacking computers, reportedly assuming the name Mendax — from the Latin splendide mendax, or "nobly untruthful."

•In 1991, at the age of 20, Assange and some fellow hackers broke into the master terminal of Nortel, the Canadian telecom company. He was caught and pleaded guilty to 25 charges; six other charges were dropped. Citing Assange's "intelligent inquisitiveness," the judge sentenced him only to pay the Australian state a small sum in damages.

•Assange studied math and physics at the University of Melbourne, though he dropped out when he became convinced that work by others in the department was being applied by defense contractors and militaries.

•In 2006, Assange decided to found WikiLeaks in the belief that the free exchange of information would put an end to illegitimate governance. The website publishes material from sources, and houses its main server in Sweden, which has strong laws protecting whistle-blowers. Assange and others at WikiLeaks also occasionally hack into secure systems to find documents to expose. In December 2006, the website published its first document: a decision by the Somali Islamic Courts Union that called for the execution of government officials. WikiLeaks published a disclaimer that the document may not be authentic but "a clever smear by U.S. intelligence."

•The website went on to get several prominent scoops, including the release in April 2010 of a secret video taken in 2007 of a U.S. helicopter attack in Iraq that killed a dozen civilians, including two unarmed Reuters journalists. Assange helped post the video from a safe house in Iceland that he and the other WikiLeaks administrators called "the bunker."
....
Financing
WikiLeaks is dependent on public donations since it is a non-profit organisation. Its main financing methods include conventional bank transfers and online payment systems. Wau Holland Foundation, one of the WikiLeaks' main funding channels, stated that they have received more than €900,000 (US$1.2 million) in public donations between October 2009 and December 2010, out of which €370,000 has been passed on to WikiLeaks

WikiLeaks claimed in April 2010 that Facebook deleted their fan page, which had 30,000 fans.[124][125][126] However, as of 7 December 2010 the group's Facebook fan page was available and had grown by 100,000 fans daily since 1 December,[127] to more than 1,300,000 fans. It is also the largest growth of the week.

Awards received
In 2008, Index on Censorship presented WikiLeaks with their inaugural Economist New Media Award.


In 2009, Amnesty International awarded WikiLeaks their Media Award for exposing "extra judicial killings and disappearances" in Kenya

Most of the governments and organisations whose files have been leaked by WikiLeaks have been critical of the organisation.

IN 2010:
In March 2010, WikiLeaks released a secret 32-page U.S. Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Report written in March 2008 discussing the leaking of material by WikiLeaks and how it could be deterred.[252][253] 

In April, a classified video of the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike was released, showing two Reuters employees being fired at, after the pilots mistakenly thought the men were carrying weapons, which were in fact cameras.[254] In the week following the release, "Wikileaks" was the search term with the most significant growth worldwide in the last seven days as measured by Google Insights.[255] In June 2010, A 22-year-old US Army intelligence analyst, PFC (formerly SPC) Bradley Manning, was arrested after alleged chat logs were turned in to the authorities by former hacker Adrian Lamo, in whom he had confided. Manning reportedly told Lamo he had leaked the "Collateral Murder" video, in addition to a video of the Granai airstrike and around 260,000 diplomatic cables, to WikiLeaks.[256] 

In July, WikiLeaks released 92,000 documents related to the war in Afghanistan between 2004 and the end of 2009 to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel. The documents detail individual incidents including friendly fire and civilian casualties.[257] At the end of July, a 1.4 GB "insurance file" was added to the Afghan War Diary page, whose decryption details would be released if WikiLeaks or Assange were harmed.[101] About 15,000 of the 92,000 documents have not yet been released on WikiLeaks, as the group is currently reviewing the documents to remove some of the sources of the information. WikiLeaks asked the Pentagon and human-rights groups to help remove names from the documents to reduce the potential harm caused by their release, but did not recieve assistance.[258] Following the Love Parade stampede in Duisburg, Germany on 24 July 2010, a local published internal documents of the city administration regarding the planning of Love Parade. The city government reacted by acquiring a court order on 16 August forcing the blog to remove the documents from its blog.[259] On 20 August WikiLeaks released a publication titled Loveparade 2010 Duisburg planning documents, 2007–2010, which comprised 43 internal documents regarding the Love Parade 2010.[260][261] Following on from the leak of information from the Afghan War, in October 2010, around 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq War where released in October. 
---------From Wikipedia

December 15, 2010

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Awardees (1991-2010)

Amongst the prestigious sports awards of India, the "Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award" is considered to be a very honourable one. There are a very few number of sportspersons from various types of sports have been succeeded to win this award so far. All of these extraordinary sportspersons are amongst the best produced by India. After its inception in the year of 1991-92, the very first recipient of the award is the world famous Chess player from India Vishwanathan Anand. He won the award in the year of 1991. After that in the year of 1992, the very talented Billiards player Geet Sethi won the award. The award went to the sporting field of Yachting in the year of 1993 when Cdr. Homi d. Motivala and Lt. Cdr. P.K. Garg won it jointly.

01. 1991-92 Viswanathan Anand   Sport -Chess
02. 1992-93 Geet Sethi                   Sport - Billiards
03  1994-95 Cdr. Homi D. Motivala and Lt. Cdr. P. K. Garg Yachting (Team Event)
04. 1995-96 Karnam Malleswari    Sport -Weightlifting
05. 1996-97 Leander Paes and Nameirakpam Kunjarani (Joint) Sport - Tennis and Weightlifting respectively
 06. 1997-98 Sachin Tendulkar      Sport -Cricket
07. 1998-99 Jyotirmoyee Sikdar Sport -Athletics
08. 1999-2000 Dhanraj Pillay Sport -Hockey
09. 2000-01 Pullela Gopichand Sport -Badminton 
10. 2001-02 Abhinav Bindra Sport -Shooting
11. 2002-03 Anjali Ved Pathak Bhagwat and K. M. Beenamol (Joint) Sport -Shooting and Athletics respectively
12. 2003-04 Anju Bobby George Sport -Athletics
13. 2004-05 Lt. Col Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore Sport -Shooting
14 . 2005-06 Pankaj Advani Sport -Billiards and Snooker
15. 2006-07 Manavjit Singh Sandhu Sport -Shooting
16. 2007-08 Mahendra Singh Dhoni Sport -Cricket 
17. 2008-09 Mary Kom, Sushil Kumar, Vijender Singh Sport -Boxing, Wrestling, Boxing 

And now for year 2010 

Saina Nehwal receives Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna on November 08, 2010 from Gill.
 (Youngest khel ratna awardees)

Know Saina Nehwal

Saina Nehwal (born March 17, 1990) is an Indian Khel Ratna winning badminton player currently ranked number 4 in the world by Badminton World Federation,[4]. Saina is the first Indian woman to reach the singles quarterfinals at the Olympics and the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton Championships. Saina Nehwal made history on June 21, 2009, becoming the first Indian to win a Super Series tournament, by clinching the Indonesia Open with a stunning victory over higher-ranked Chinese Wang Lin in Jakarta. (The Super Series tournament is roughly equivalent to a Grand Slam in tennis).

Saina won her second career Super Series title by winning the Singapore Open title on June 20, 2010. She completed a hat-trick in the same year by winning the Indonesian Open on June 27, 2010. This win resulted in her rise to 3rd ranking and subsequently to No. 2. Later in the same year she also won Hong Kong Super Series on December 12, 2010.

Previously coached by S. M. Arif, a Dronacharya Award winner, Saina is the reigning Indian national junior champion and is currently coached by Indonesian badminton legend Atik Jauhari since August 2008,[5] with the former All England champion and national coach Pullela Gopichand being her mentor. Saina was born in Hisar, Haryana and has spent her entire life in Hyderabad, India. Her foray into the world of badminton was influenced by her father Dr. Harvir Singh, a scientist at the Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Hyderabad and her mother Usha Nehwal[1], both of whom were former badminton champions in Haryana. She is the top ranked player (women) in Indian Badminton history
 

December 13, 2010

स्वातंत्र्यवीर सावरकरांचा जीवनक्रम

(जन्म-शके १८०५ वैशाख कृ ६ || निर्वाण- शके १८८७ फाल्गून शु.६)

१८८३ मे २८ जन्म भगूर गाव(जि. नाशिक).
१८९२ मातृ निधन.
१८९८ मे देवीपुढे सशस्त्र क्रांतीची शपथ.
१८९९ सप्टें ५ पितृनिधन.
१९०० जाने १ मित्रमेळ्याची स्थापना.
१९०१ मार्च विवाह.
१९०१ डिसे.१९ मैट्रिक परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण.
१९०१ जाने.२४ पुणे येथील फर्गसन महाविद्यालयात प्रवेश.
१९०४ मे. अभिनव भारत या आंतरराष्ट्रीय क्रांतीसंस्थेची स्थापना.
१९०५ दसरा विदेशी कपडयांची होळी.
१९०५ डिसे.२१ बी.ए. परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण.
१९०६ जून ९ लंडनला प्रयाण.
१९०७ मे १० १८५७ च्या स्वातंत्र-युद्धाचा लंडनमध्ये सुवर्ण महोत्सव.
१९०७ जून मॅझिनीचे चरित्र प्रसिद्ध केले.
१९०८ मे २ लंडनमध्ये प्रथम शिवजयंत्युत्सव.
१९०८ हॉलंडमधे सत्तावनचे स्वातंत्र्यसमर(इंग्रजी) गुप्तपणे छापले.
१९०९ मे बॅरिस्टरची परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण,पण पदवीस नकार.
१९०९ जून वडील बंधु श्री.बाबाराव यांना जन्मठेप-काळेपाणी-शिक्षा.
१९०९ जुलै धिंग्राकृत कर्झन वायलीचा वध.
१९०९ आक्टो.२४ लंडनमधे दसर्‍याचा उत्सव, अध्यक्ष--- बॅ.गांधी.
१९१० मार्च १३ पॅरिसहून लंडनला येताच अटक.
१९१० जुलै ८ मार्सेलीस बंदरात समुद्रात उडी.
१९१० डिसे.२४ जन्मठेप काळ्यापाणीची शिक्षा.
१९११ जाने.३१ दुसर्‍या जन्मठेपेची शिक्षा.
१९११ जुलै ४ अंदमानच्या कारावासास(एकलकोंडीत) प्रारंभ.
१९१९ एप्रिल (बाबारावांच्या पत्नी)सौ.येसुवहिनींचे निधन.
१९२० नोव्हें. धाकचे बंधु डा. नारायणरावांची अंदमान-कारागृहात जाऊन भेट.
१९२१ मे.२ बाबाराव आणि तात्याराव दोघांची अंदमानातून हिंदुस्थानांत पाठवणी.
१९२१ नि १९२२ अलिपूर(बंगाल) नि रत्नागिरी येथील बंदिवास.
१९२३ मुंबईचे राज्यपाल लाईड जार्ज यांची सावरकरांच्या मुक्ततेविषयी चर्चा.
१९२४ जाने.६ राजकारणात भाग न घेणे व रत्नागिरी जिल्ह्यात. राहणे या दोन अटींवर येरवडा कारागृहातुन सुटका.
१९२५ जाने.७ कन्या “प्रभात” हिचा जन्म.
१९२६ जाने.१० हुतात्मा स्वामी श्रद्धानंदांच्या स्मरणार्थ ‘श्रद्धानंद’ साप्ताहिक मुंबईत सुरू केले.
१९२७ मार्च १ रत्नागिरीस गांधीजी-सावरकर भेट नि चर्चा.
१९२७ मार्च १७ पुत्र “विश्वास” याचा जन्म.
१९३० नोव्हें १६ रत्नागिरीत स्पृश्यास्पृश्यांचे पहिले प्रकट सहभोजन
१९३१ फेब्रु.२२ पतित-पावन मंदिरात श्री. लक्ष्मी-नारायण मूर्तीची प्राणप्रतिष्ठा.
१९३१ फेब्रु २५ मुंबई इलाखा अस्पृश्यता-निवारक-परिषद अधिवेशन ६ वे अध्यक्ष.
१९३१ एप्रिल २६ सोमवंशी महार-परिषद- अध्यक्ष. पतित-पावन मंदिरात सभा.
१९३१ सप्टें २२ नेपाळ-राजपुत्र हेमसमशेर जंगबहादुर राणा यांनी भेट दिली.
१९३१ सप्टें १७ श्रीगणेशोत्सवात भंगीबुवांचे कीर्तन.महाराचा गीतापाठ
नि ७५ स्पृश्या- स्पृश्य महिलांचे पहिले सहभोजन.
१९३७ मे १० रत्नागिरी स्थलबद्धतेतून विनाअट संपूर्ण मुक्तता.
१९३७ डिसे.३० हिंदु महासभा १९ व्या अ. भा. अधिवेशनाचे अध्यक्ष,कर्णावती.लागोपाठ सात वर्षे अ.भा.हि.म. सभेच्या अध्यक्षपदीं निवड.
१९३८ एप्रिल १५ ‘महाराष्ट्र-साहित्य-संमेलन’ २२ वे अधिवेशन,मुंबई, अध्यक्ष.
१९३९ फेब्रु १ निजाम विरोधी ‘भागानगरचा निःशस्त्र प्रतिकार’ प्रारंभ.
१९४१ जून २२ सुभाषचंद्र बोस अवचित सावरकर-सदनात येऊन भेटले.
१९४१ डिसे.२५ भागलपूरचा नागरिक-सभा-स्वातंत्र्यार्थ लढा.
१९४३ मे २८ ६१व्या वाढदिवसानिमित्त पुण्यात अ.भा. सत्कार आणि निधी समर्पण.
१९४३ आगस्ट १४ नागपूर-विद्यापीठाने डी. लिट. ही सन्मान्य पदवी दिली.
१९४३ नोव्हें ५ अखिल महाराष्ट्र नाट्य-संमेलन अध्यक्ष.
१९४५ मार्च १६ वडील बंधु श्री.गणेशपंत(तथा बाबाराव) यांचे निधन, सांगली.
१९४५ एप्रिल १९ अ.भा. संस्थान-हिंदूसभा-अधिवेशन(बडोदे) अध्यक्ष.
१९४५ मे ८ कन्या ‘प्रभात’ चा विवाह, पुणे.
१९४६ एप्रिल मुंबई सरकारनं संपूर्ण सावरकर-वाङमयावरील बंदी उठवली.
१९४७ आगस्ट १५ दुख:मिश्रित आनंद! घरावर भगवा ध्वज नि राष्ट्र- ध्वज उभारले.
१९४८ फेब्रु. ५ गांधी-वधानंतर सुरक्षा-निर्बंधान्वये अटक.
१९४९ फेब्रु १० गांधी-वध अभियोगातून निष्कलंक सुटका.
१९४९ आक्टो १९ धाकटे बंधु डा. नारायणराव यांचे निधन.
१९४९ डिसे. अ.भा.हि.म. सभा, कलकत्ता- अधिवेशनाचे उद्- घाटक.
१९५० एप्रिल ४ पाक पंतप्रधान लियाकत अली ची दिल्ली भेट म्हणून अटक नि बेळगाव कारागृह-वास.
१९५२ मे १०-१२ ‘अभिनव-भारत’ संस्थेचा सांगता-समारंभ, पुणे.
१९५५ फेब्रु. रत्नागिरीच्या पतित-पावन मंदिराच्या सुवर्ण महोत्सवाचे अध्यक्ष.
१९५६ जुलै २३ लो.टिळक जन्मशताब्दी महोत्सव,पुण्यात भाषण.
१९५६ नोव्हें १० अ.भा.हि.म. सभा,जोधपूर- अधिवेशनाचे उद्-घाटक.
१९५७ मे १० दिल्लीत १८५७ च्या स्वातंत्र्युद्ध-शताब्दी महोत्सवात भाषण.
१९५८ मे २८ ७५ वा वाढदिवस. मुंबई महापालिकेकडून सत्कार.
१९५९ आक्टो ८ पुणे विद्यापीठाने ‘डी-लिट’ सन्मान्य पदवी(घरी येऊन) दिली.
१९६० डिसें. २४ मृत्युंजय-दिन-साजरा(या दिवशी ५०वर्षे जन्मठेप संपत होती).
१९६१ जाने.१४ मृत्युंजय-दिनानिमित्त शेवटचे प्रकट भाषण(पुणे).
१९६२ एप्रिल १५ मुंबईचे राज्यपाल श्रीप्रकाश घरी येऊन भेटले.
१९६३ मे २९ मांडीचे हाड मोडल्याने रूग्णालयात.( मुंबई)
१९६३ नोव्हें ८ पत्नी सौ. यमुनाबाई यांचे निधन.
१९६४ आगस्ट १ मृत्युपत्र केले.
१९६४ आक्टो. भारत सरकारकडून मासिक रू.३०० मानधन देऊन सन्मान.
१९६५ सप्टें गंभीर आजार.
१९६६ फेब्रु १ अन्न नि औषध वर्ज्य करून प्रायोपवेशनास प्रारंभ.
१९६६ फेब्रु २६ शनिवारी सकाळी १०-३० वाजता देह-विसर्जन. वय८३
१९६६ फेब्रु २७ महायात्रेत मुंबई सेंट्रल स्थानकासमोर रा.स्व. संघाची सैनिकी मानवंदना, मुंबईच्या चंदनवाडी विद्युत्-दाहिनीत अग्निसंस्कार...

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सावरकरांचा जन्म नाशिक जिल्ह्यातील भगूर ह्या गावी झाला. त्यांचे वडील दामोदरपंत सावरकर हे गावातील प्रतिष्ठित गृहस्थ होते. विनायकराव हे त्यांचे दुसरे चिरंजीव. थोरले बाबाराव आणि धाकटे नारायणराव. सावरकरांची आई ते नऊ वर्षांचे असताना वारली. थोरल्या बंधूंच्या पत्‍नी येसूवहिनी ह्यांनी त्यांच्यावर आईसारखीच माया केली. सावरकरांचे वडील १८९९ च्या प्लेगास बळी गेले.

सावरकरांचे प्राथमिक शिक्षण नाशिकच्या शिवाजी विद्यालयामध्ये झाले. ते लहानपणापासूनच अत्यंत बुद्धिमान होते. जिव्हा आणि लेखणी ते सारख्याच ताकदीने चालवत. चापेकर बंधूंना फाशी दिल्याचे वृत्त समजताच लहानग्या सावरकरांनी आपली कुलदेवता भगवती हिच्यापुढे "देशाच्या स्वातंत्र्यासाठी सशस्त्र क्रांतीचा केतू उभारून मारिता मारिता मरेतो झुंजेन" अशी शपथ घेतली.

मार्च १९०१ मध्ये विनायकराव यमुनाबाई यांच्याशी विवाहबद्ध झाले. लग्नानंतर १९०२ साली फर्गुसन महाविद्यालयात प्रवेश घेतला व १९०६ साली उच्च शिक्षणासाठी लंडनला गेले.

राष्ट्रभक्तसमूह ही गुप्त संघटना त्यांनी पागे आणि म्हसकर ह्या आपल्या साथीदारांच्या साहाय्याने स्थापन केली. मित्रमेळा ही संघटना ह्या गुप्त संस्थेची प्रकट शाखा होती. ह्याच संघटनेचे पुढे अभिनव भारत ह्या संघटनेत रूपांतर झाले. इटालीयन क्रांतिकारक आणि विचारवंत जोसेफ मेझिनी ह्याच्या यंग इटली ह्या संस्थेच्या धर्तीवर हे नाव दिले गेले होते.

श्यामजी कृष्ण वर्मा ह्यांनी घोषित केलेली शिवाजी शिष्यवृत्ती मिळवून कायद्याच्या अभ्यासासाठी सावरकर लंडनला गेले. ही शिष्यवृत्ती त्यांना देण्यात यावी अशी सुचवण स्वतः लोकमान्य टिळकांनी केली होती. लंडनमधील इंडिया-हाऊसमध्ये राहात असताना सावरकरांनी जोसेफ मॅझिनीच्या आत्मचरित्राचे मराठी भाषांतर केले. ह्या भाषांतराला जोडलेल्या प्रस्तावनेत सावकरांनी सशस्त्र क्रांतीचे तत्त्वज्ञान विषद केले होते. त्या काळातील अनेक युवकांना ही प्रस्तावना मुखोद्गत होती.

१८५७ मध्ये इंग्रजांविरुद्ध भारतात झालेल्या उठावाचा साधार इतिहास सावरकरांनी लिहिला. 'अठराशे सत्तावन्नचे स्वातंत्र्यसमर' हा तो ग्रंथ होय. हा उठाव म्हणजे केवळ एक बंड होय हा इंग्रज इतिहासकारांचा निष्कर्ष सावरकरांनी साधार खोडून काढला. ब्रिटिश शासनाने हा ग्रंथ प्रकाशनापूर्वीच जप्त केला. पण सावरकरांच्या साथीदारांनी तो इंग्लंडच्या बाहेरून प्रसिद्ध करण्यात यश मिळवले. ही ह्या ग्रंथाची इंग्रजी आवृत्ती होती. मूळ मराठी ग्रंथाचे हस्तलिखित सावरकरांचे मित्र कुटिन्हो ह्यांनी जपून ठेवले होते. ते स्वातंत्र्यानंतर प्रसिद्ध झाले.

राजद्रोहपर लिखाण प्रसिद्ध केल्याचा आरोप ठेऊन सावरकरांचे थोरले बंधू बाबाराप सावरकर यांना ब्रिटीश शासनाने जन्मठेपेची शिक्षा देऊन काळ्यापाण्यावर धाडले. ह्या घटनेचा प्रतिशोध म्हणून लंडनमध्ये मदनलाल धिंग्रानी कर्झन वायलीला गोळ्या घातल्या तर नाशिक येथे अनंत कान्हेरे ह्यांनी नाशिकचा जिल्हाधिकारी जॅक्सन ह्याला गोळ्या घालून ठार केले. नाशिकच्या ह्या प्रकरणात वापरण्यात आलेली ब्राउनिंग जातीची पिस्तुले सावरकरांनी चतुर्भुज अमीन ह्याच्याकरवी धाडली होती.

वीर सावरकरांनीच पुढे दुसर्‍या महायुद्धाच्यावेळी जपान येथे जाउन नेताजी सुभाष चंद्र बोस यांनी "आझाद हिंद फ़ौजेचे" सेनापतिपद भूषवावे अशी गळ घातली. त्यासाठी त्यांनी श्री रासबिहारी बोस यांचे पत्र नेताजींना दाखवुन सेनापतीची गरज पटवून दिली.पुढचा रोमहर्षक इतिहास सगळ्यांना माहीतच असेल.पण मुख्य प्रेरणा वीर सावरकरांचीच होती.
(source:http://www.savarkarsmarak.com/aboutsavarkar.php) 

December 12, 2010

Rashtrapati Bhavan and Names of Presidents

  • Do you know these facts ?
    The main entrance to Rashtrapati Bhavan is known as Gate 35, and is located on Prakash Vir Shastri Avenue, renamed from North Avenuein November 2002, as a memorial to the politician of the namesake who served here during his tenure as a Member of Parliament for the state of Uttar Pradesh.
    The Mughal Garden in The Palace of India displays numerous types of flowers and is open to public in February every year.
    No steel was used to construct The Palace of India.
    The song Des Rangila from Fanaa was shot at Rashtrapati Bhavan including its rehearsal scenes.
    Jaipur Column---The main structure is 640 feet wide and its sides are 540 feet deep (roughly 195 by 165 meters). The circumference at the base is a kilometere long. There is a vast court in front, T-shaped, with the horizontal line aligned with the front of the building. In the center of this jutting section stands the Jaipur Column, 145 feet(44.2 meters), topped by a bronze lotus from which rises a six-pointed glass star. The name of the column comes from the fact that its cost was borne by the Maharaja of Jaipur. An intresting details about the column is that inside the stone shaft runs a steel tube which tethers the lotus and the star, which weigh a little more than five tonnes, to a concrete block in the foundation.The British sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, known for his war memorials in Britain, designed the elephants on the corners of the retaining walls, as well as the bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column.
    Banquet Hall
    State Dinning Hall, now known as Banquet Hall. Can seat 104 persons. Portraits of all former Presidents embellish its walls. An assortment of medieval arms on display.
    It is the largest residence of any Head of the State in the world.
  • The Rashtrapathi Bhavan is situated in the Raisina Hills.It is built with redstones and it was the abode of The Viceroy to India in the past.It encompasses an area of 5 acres and was designed by the famous architect Edwin Leutins. It was decided to be finished in 4 years, but it look 17 years to complete and in the 18th year India got Independence as well.It has 340 rooms in it. 
  •  Names of Presidents :-
1. Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) 26 January 1950 to 13 May 1962

2. Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967

3. Dr Zakir Hussain (1897-1969) 13 May 1967 to 3 May 1969

4. Shri Varahagiri Venkat Giri (1894-1980) 3 May 1969 to 20 July 1969 and 24 August 1969 to 24 August 1974

5. Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977) 24 August 1974 to 11 February 1977

6. Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913-1996) 25 July 1977 to 25 July 1982

7. Giani Zail Singh (1916-1994) 25 July 1982 to 25 July 1987

8. Shri R. Venkataraman (1910- ) 25 July 1987 to 25 July 1992

9. Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918-1999) 25 July 1992 to 25 July 19973

10. Shri K.R. Narayanan (1920-2005) 25 July 1997 to 25 July 2002

11. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (1931- ) 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007

12.Pratibhatai DeviSingh Patil (currently)



The role of The President's Bodyguard is twofold - Ceremonial and Operational. They are the personal troops of The President of India and hence form an integral part of all state functions. Operationally, The President's Bodyguard has always responded to the call of duty. The Regiment has seen action in various roles and battlefields ever since it was raised. Post Independence, the Bodyguard Armoured Cars were the first to be air lifted to Chushul. In 1965, the Regiment participated in 'OPERATIONAL ABLAZE'. Detachments of the Bodyguard have served in 'OPERATION PAWAN' in Sri Lanka with the Indian Peace Keeping Force and in 'OPERATION MEGHDOOT' on the Siachen Glacier. Detachments of the Bodyguard have also served overseas with the United Nations Peace Keeping Forces in Somalia, Angola and Sierra Leone.  
 

December 11, 2010

Update with Trade gk

NAMA - Non-Agricultural Market Access

Non Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) relates to trade negotiations on non-agricultural or industrial products. In the NAMA negotiations, WTO Members discuss the terms or modalities for reducing or eliminating customs tariff and non tariff barriers on trade in industrial products.

 
The product coverage under NAMA includes marine products, chemicals, rubber products, wood products, textiles and clothing, leather, ceramics, glassware, engineering products, electronics, automobiles, instruments, sports goods and toys.
On tariffs, the negotiations take place on the bound tariff which are the bindings taken during the negotiations at the WTO. The bound tariffs are the upper limit of the applied customs tariff which are the tariffs actually applied by the Customs authorities on imports into any country.
 In the NAMA negotiations there are tariffs on which no bindings have been taken and these are known as the unbound tariff lines. Based on the commitments taken by India, at the commencement of the Doha Round in 2001, India has more than 31% of it NAMA tariff lines as unbound.
 
SEZ

India was one of the first in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000.


The Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, was passed by Parliament in May, 2005 which received Presidential assent on the 23rd of June, 2005.

After extensive consultations, the SEZ Act, 2005, supported by SEZ Rules, came into effect on 10th February, 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as state governments.

The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:

(a) generation of additional economic activity
(b) promotion of exports of goods and services;
(c) promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources;
(d) creation of employment opportunities;
(e) development of infrastructure facilities;
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi :

The IIFT, registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860 as Society, is headed by the Director General. The Institute became functional on 1st April, 1964. It is engaged in the following activities:
· Training of personnel in modern techniques of international trade;
· Conducting Market research in problems of foreign trade;
· Organisation of marketing research, area surveys, commodity surveys, market surveys; and
· Dissemination of information arising from its activities relating to research and market studies.
The IIFT has been accorded the "Deemed To Be University" status by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and the University Grants Commission(UGC) with effect from 20th May, 2002
 
India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)

Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), New Delhi, is the premier trade promotion agency of India and provides a broad spectrum of services to trade and industry so as to promote export. With Headquarters at Pragati Maidan, a modern exhibition complex spread over 150 acres in New Delhi and regional offices at Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai, ITPO ensures a representative participation of trade and industry from different regions of the country at its events in India and abroad

Export Promotion Councils :
There are at present twelve Export Promotion Councils under the administrative control of the Department of Commerce and nine export promotion councils related to textile sector under the administrative control of Ministry of Textiles. These Councils are registered as non -profit organisations under the Companies Act/Societies Registration Act. The Export Promotion Councils perform both advisory and executive functions. These Councils are also the registering authorities under the Export Import Policy, 1997-2002.These Councils have been assigned the role and functions under the said Policy.
The Committee constituted to look into the aspects of rationalization of election procedure of the Export Promotion Councils(EPCs) and the criteria to be adopted for their restructuring so that they retain their relevance to the national export effort in the context of globlisation and economic liberalization, has made recommendations to streamline and strengthening the functioning of the EPCs. The Government has since accepted the recommendations of the Committee and issued Model Bye-Laws and guidelines to all EPCs for adoption.
 

December 10, 2010

Obama's visit to India

The agreements signed between INDIA -US

India and the United States have agreed to set up a research and development centre for clean energy in India and will provide annual funding of $5 million each for five years to complete joint research in solar, biofuels and energy efficiency.

US signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with India to set up a Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership for research and development of secure and proliferation resistant reactor systems.

MOU to establish an India-US Energy Cooperation Programme. It will mobilise private sector expertise and resources to address clean energy-related issues in India and the US. This will broadly cover all sources of energy, including renewable source, and ties in with Obama’s focus on climate change.

Agreement on technical cooperation to study India’s annual monsoon rains. The agreement is likely to help India improve its capability in predicting monsoon, which is crucial for the agriculture sector, crop weather prediction and predicting floods.

MOU between India and the US on shale gas resources which will see US technology used to assess shale gas resources in India. India does not have technology to exploit shale gas, an unconventional gas trapped in sedimentary rocks and the US is a pioneer in the field.

India and the US signed MOU on establishing and operating a Global Disease Detection Centre in India. The MoU would be implemented through an agreed plan between the National Centre for Disease Control, India and the Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta. The agreement would enable sharing best practices for detection and response to emerging infections
 




Obama's visit to India....How different it is from Bush's visit...and the its impact on China Pak and Afghanisthan

  1. President Barack Obama will be visiting India in November. During his stay , apart from holding talks with Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh and other Indian leaders, he is expected to address a joint session of the Indian Parliament and possibly visit Mumbai. This would be the sixth visit by a US President to India since it became independent in 1947. The previous visits were of Dwight Eisenhower in 1959, Richard Nixon in 1969, Jimmy Carter in 1978, Bill Clinton in 2000 and George Bush in 2006.



2. Obama’s predecessor George Bush visited Afghanistan, India and Pakistan in March 2006. During his stay in India, there was a terrorist attack in Karachi in which an American diplomat posted in the US Consulate was killed. Despite this, Bush went ahead with his visit to Islamabad. His decision to stick to his itinerary despite the Karachi incident spoke highly of the confidence of the US Secret Service in its ability to protect him.




3. During the visit of Bill Clinton in March 2000, no public announcement was made about a visit to Pakistan. He did visit Islamabad for a few hours from a Gulf country before flying back to Washington DC. On the eve of his arrival in New Delhi (March 20,2000), 15-17 terrorists , dressed in army fatigues, entered the village of Chattisinghpora, located in the Anantnag district, ordered all of the Sikh men and boys to assemble at the village gurudwara, and systematically shot and killed 34 of them. Many others were injured.




4. White House officials have been quoted as saying that Obama does not intend visiting Pakistan, but one should not be surprised if after visiting India, Obama makes a quick visit to Pakistan as Clinton did. Indian security agencies should be alert to the possibility of a mass casualty terrorist strike, possibly in J&K, during his visit to embarrass him and the Indian leaders.



5. The forthcoming visit of Obama to India has not given rise to the same excitement and the same kind of expectations as the visit of Bush had done. Since Obama assumed office in January last year, Indo-US relations have lost some of the élan that they had acquired under Bush. During the presidency of Bush, Indo-US relations were rich in symbolism and protocol as well as in substance. Bush and his Secretary of State, MS.Condoleezza Rice, made no secret of their desire to help India emerge as a big Asian power on par with China.



6.Commenting on the visit of Bush to the three countries the “Dawn” of Karachi wrote as follows on March 11,2006: “THE recent visit of President Bush to Afghanistan, India and Pakistan has brought home the point once again that India is and likely to remain for a long time the centrepiece of the US policy towards South Asia. In contrast, Pakistan, despite its services in the war on terror, seems to have lost its earlier pre-eminent position in US foreign policy calculations. The fact that India is a well-established democracy is a source of great strength to its strategic ties with the US which under President Bush has made the promotion of democracy one of the salient features of its foreign policy. Their joint cooperation in combating nuclear proliferation and terrorism is another link bringing the two countries closer together as is the prospect of mutually beneficial cooperation in the fields of economics, commerce, defence and civil nuclear technology. Above all, it is the prospect of the emergence of India as a major power in the 21st century and as a counterweight to China on its southern periphery that is acting like a magnet in attracting US policymakers towards India. Thus, the growing Indo-US strategic relationship neatly dovetails the strategic objectives of a global hegemon and an aspiring regional hegemon.” The “Dawn” was not wide off the mark in its assessment.



7. Under Bush, Indo-US relations were marked by a breath-taking flow of new ideas on how India and the US can work together. To mention some of them--- Indo-US civilian nuclear co-operation, strategic partnership, joint army, air force and naval exercises, Indian naval escort for US warships moving between the Pacific and the Gulf during the Iraq military conflict, co-operation in counter-terrorism and cyber security, joint humanitarian missions to help the victims of the tsunami of December 2004 in the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, a concert of democracies consisting of India, the US, Japan and Australia and so on.




8. While the Bush Administration was not enthusiastic about any Indian strategic role in Afghanistan and about a Look West Policy by the Indian Navy lest it add to the concerns of Pakistan, fear of adverse reactions from China was not an inhibiting factor in respect of ideas for Indo-US co-operation in areas to the East of India. Bush and his aides did not try to project China as having a legitimate role in South Asia.

9. The enthusiastic ideas of the Bush Administration relating to Indo-US co-operation were a refreshing departure from the hesitant policies of the Clinton Administration which for the first time, much to the unhappiness of India, brought in the idea of a Chinese strategic role in South Asia during Clinton’s visit to China in June-July 1998. Under Obama, the high symbolism and protocol of the Bush administration have remained, but the substance of the relations has been diluted much to the chagrin of India. Indo-US relations are back to the hesitant days of Clinton. Chinese sensitivies are once again a determining factor influencing policy-making towards South Asia in Washington DC. The reference to the role that China could play in South Asia during Obama’s visit to China in November 2009 showed a reversion back to the days of Bill Clinton.

10. The 22 months of the Obama Administration have been marked by a paucity of ideas as to what India and the US can do together. Apart from the Joint Counter-Terrorism Initiative launched by the two countries during the visit of the Indian Prime Minister to the US in November 2009, there has been hardly any new idea which could be called Obama’s own and over which India could feel excited. Even the Joint Counter-Terrorism Initiative has had an indifferent start due to the disappointing experience of Indian officials relating to the interrogation of David Coleman Headley, of the Chicago cell of the Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET). The pressure exercised by the US on Pakistan to act against Hafiz Mohammad Sayeed, the Amir of the Jamaat-ud-Dawa, and to vigorously prosecute the Pakistan-based conspirators of the Mumbai 26/11 terrorist strikes has been half-hearted and has not produced results to the satisfaction of India. All US Administrations, including that of Bush, have been soft towards Pakistan and have avoided acting against it for sponsoring terrorism against India. The Obama Administration has been particularly so. Its priority is to nudge Pakistan to act against Al Qaeda, the Afghan and Pakistani Talibans and the associates of Al Qaeda posing a threat to US nationals and interests in Afghanistan, in the US homeland and elsewhere. Action against Pakistani Punjabi terrorists posing a threat to Indian nationals and interests, whether in India or in Afghanistan, has a lesser priority.



11.Even more than the Bush Administration, the Obama Administration has been sensitive to Pakistani concerns over India’s presence in Afghanistan to assist the Hamid Karzai Government in matters like medicare, improvement of governance and education, road construction etc. In contrast, the Obama Administration has shown very little concern over the Chinese presence and role in Afghanistan. On the contrary, it has been encouraging China to play its due role as an important regional player by assisting the Governments of both Afghanistan and Pakistan in dealing with terrorism. Richard Holbrooke, Obama’s special envoy on Af-Pak policy, was reported to have visited China to urge a more active role by Beijing in strengthening Pakistan’s counter-terrorism capacity.




12. The reported induction of a large number of Chinese troops into the Gilgit-Baltistan area of Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) from Xinjiang has hardly elicited any criticism from the Obama Administration. Even Washington’s opposition to Chinese moves to supply two nuclear power stations to Pakistan in disregard of the restrictions of the Nuclear Suppliers Group has been pro forma and half-hearted. Media reports that the Obama Administration might be linking its support for India’s permanent membership of the UN Security Council to forward movement on the Kashmir issue are not encouraging from the point of view of Indo-US relations.



13. The change in the US public stance on the dispute over the South China Sea islands between China and some ASEAN countries has a pointer for India. China has always been contending that it is a bilateral issue in which third parties have no locus standi, The US had not challenged this Chinese stance in the past, but now it has started saying that the US has a locus standi because the territorial dispute affects regional peace and security and freedom of navigation. It has been accepting till now the Indian stance that the Kashmir issue has to be handled bilaterally by India and Pakistan and that third parties have no role in the matter. Pakistani and even some US analysts have been arguing that the settlement of the Kashmir issue should be of legitimate interest to the US because the so-called dispute has implications for regional peace and security. India cannot take for granted continued US silence and neutrality on the Kashmir issue.



14. The Obama Administration has had differences with Beijing over issues such as the sale of US arms to Taiwan, the meeting of Obama with his Holiness the Dalai Lama in the White House and the Chinese naval assertiveness in the South and East China Seas and the extension of the Chinese naval interests to the Indian Ocean region. Despite this, it looks upon China as capable of playing a benign role in South Asia, including Afghanistan. Indian concerns over the increasing Chinese strategic presence in South Asia were understood and appreciated by the Bush Administration, but not by the Obama Administration.



15. Thus, India has every reason to be disappointed with the policies of the Obama Adminstration. Despite this, we should not relent in our efforts to strengthen India’s economic and strategic relations with the US. Indian policy-makers should be realistic enough to realise that there would be limits to US support for India in matters having an impact on our bilateral disputes with China and Pakistan. This is an unpleasant reality to which we must adjust ourselves. Is it possible to develop the strategic partnership despite this unpleasant reality? If so, how to do it? That is a challenge to Indian and US policy-makers.



16.The amazing lead of the US in science and technology is constantly expanding. Neither its Western allies nor the old communist empire headed by the erstwhile USSR nor the newly-emerging powers such as China or India have been able to catch up with the US in this field. Nor will they be ever able to. Neither China nor India will ever be able to make the kind of financial and intellectual investments in S&T that the US has been making. When countries such as China or India seek a strategic partnership with the US, an important motivating factor is the hope of benefiting from the gains made by the US in S&T. Their hopes remain unfulfilled because of the reluctance of the US to share these gains. While there is no limit to the US generosity when it comes to sharing its economic wealth with the rest of the world, it has been the most reluctant to share the advances made by it in S&T. This is one of the reasons for the tardy progress in its strategic partnerships with China or India or other countries. How to break the US inhibitions in sharing at least some of its technologies with India is a question that needs attention.



17.`Of its military power, the USA's naval strength has been the most important component. India is attracted by its naval power. China is overawed by it. India is hoping to emerge as the most important naval power after the US in the Indian Ocean region. It would like to prevent the emergence of China as an important naval power in the same region. Both these objectives would require the benevolent support of the US. There is a greater admiration and goodwill for the US in the Indian Navy than in the Indian Army or Air Force. This is natural and is likely to continue. The Indian Navy needs the US Navy as a helper in capacity-building, as a collaborator in maintaining the freedom of the seas in the Indian Ocean region and as a facilitator in the rise of India as a benign power.



18. Indian policy-makers and public opinion would welcome Indo-US naval co-operation. Similarly, US policy-makers and public opinion would be comfortable with naval co-operation with India, but might not like to get involved with India in its territorial conflicts with China and Pakistan. Navy-Navy ties have to be an important pillar of the Indo-US strategic infrastructure. In working out its policies in this regard, the US faces a dilemma arising from the question: How to help the Indian Navy in maintaining a primacy vis-a-vis China in the Indian Ocean region while ensuring that the newly-acquired strength of the Indian Navy would not be used against Pakistan? This explains the ambivalence in the US policies---- encouraging Indian naval activism in the waters to the East of India, while discouraging it in the waters to the West lest they cause concern to Pakistan. This ambivalence will continue and act as a speed-breaker in the development of Indo-US strategic partnership.



19. In the acquisition of economic power, China is more than a decade ahead of India, which is unlikely to catch up with China in the short and medium terms. The Chinese lead is due to two reasons. Firstly, it opened up its economy 13 years ahead of India in 1978. It realised the importance of the US market and the purchasing power of the US consumers for the growth of its manufacturing sector. China would not have succeeded in developing as rapidly as it did but for its knack of siphoning benefits from the US market. The role of the US market and the US consumers in making possible the Chinese economic miracle has not been adequately realised in India. India is still not paying the required attention to the US market, the US consumers and US businessmen. It thinks it can achieve the same results as China by depending on its own increasingly prosperous consumers. Its hopes are likely to be belied. India's lead over China in the services and the IT sectors will be short-lived. The manufacturing sector needs greater attention and it should be able to compete with China in the US market.



20.The US will ultimately need both China and India to maintain its economic prosperity. For US economic policy-makers, China is a bird in hand. India is only a bird in the bush. How to create a mutual dependence between the US and Indian economies similar to the mutual dependence between the US and Chinese economies? Is it wise to have such dependence at all? These are important questions to be examined by Indian policy-makers and analysts.



21. Indian soft power, which is growing, is not a copy-cat of American soft power. India has sought to learn from the positive points in the US soft power without blindly aping it. The evolution of the Indian soft power owed more to the Indian ethos and culture than to the American influence. China, which has only recently realised the importance of soft power, is seeking to ape the US and other countries of the West. Its admiration for the US soft power is considerable and influences its policy. In determining the present and future directions of the Indo-US strategic partnership, one has been seeing the role of a new component of soft power, which is a common heritage of India and the US----that is, the soft power of the growing Indo-American community in the US. No other immigrant community in the US----not even from Europe or South America----- has played such an important role as the Indo-American community in acting as a catalyst for closer bilateral relations between the US and the country of origin of the immigrants. One saw in the case of the Jewish community in the US the role which a diaspora can play as an element of soft power. One is seeing it now in the case of the diaspora of Indian origin. This soft power can add strength to the Indo-US strategic partnership and should be valued and nourished by the two Governments.



( The writer is Additional Secretary (retd), Cabinet Secretariat, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and, presently, Director, Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai. E-mail: seventyone2@gmail.com )

December 9, 2010

Facts who must know !!

A jellyfish is 95 percent water, and humans around 70%

A jellyfish is 95% water.

A jumbo jet uses 4,000 gallons of fuel to take off.

A kangaroo can jump up to 3 meters high and leap up to 8 meters.

A kangaroo can't jump unless it's tail is touching the ground.

A Kentucky statute states, "No female shall appear in a bathing suit on any highway within this state unless she is escorted by at least two officers or unless she be armed with a club." Later, an amendment proposed: "The provisions of this statute shall not apply to any female weighing less than sixty pounds nor exceeding 200 pounds; nor shall it apply to female horses."

A large swarm of locusts can eat 80,000 tons of corn a day.

A leech is a worm that feeds on blood. It will pierce its victim's skin, fill itself with three to four times its own body weight in blood, and will not feed again for months. Leeches were once used by doctors to drain "bad blood" from sick patients.

A lions roar can be heard from five miles away.

A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court.

A magic potion or charm thought to arouse sexual love, especially toward a specific person, is known as a "philter."

A male emperor moth can smell a female emperor moth up to 7 miles away.

A male moth can smell a female moth from 100 yards away.

A man and woman in Mexico city were engaged for 67 yrs and finally married at the age of 82 yrs.

A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for 69 years

A Manatee (Dugong) has very slow-clotting blood, and important in finding out about haemophilia.

A manned rocket can reach the moon in less time than it used to take to travel the length of England by stagecoach.

A mark twain, a nautical measurement of depth, is equal to twelve feet.

A McDonald's straw will hold 7.7 ml, or just over one-and-a-half teaspoons of whatever you are drinking.

A Michigan law states that a wife's hair legally belongs to her husband.

A millipede has 4 legs on each segment of its body.

A mockingbird has been known to change its tune 87 times over a span minute span.

A mole can dig a tunnel 300 feet long in just one night.

A mongoose is not a goose but more like a meercat, which is not a cat but more like a prairie dog, which is not a dog but more like a ground squirrel.

A monkey was once tried and convicted for smoking a cigarette in South Bend, Indiana.

A mosquito will become restless and start flying around if there is an increase of carbon dioxide in the surrounding air

A mother in Sydney, Australia, gave birth to twins 56 days apart and in different years; one was born in 17th December'1952 and the other on 10th February'1953.

A mule is a crossbreed between a male donkey and a female horse. A hinnie is yada yada a female donkey and a male horse.

A murder is committed in the US every 23 minutes, which makes about 22852 murders each year.

A newborn kangaroo is about 1 inch in length.

A normal cow's stomach has four compartments: the rumen, the recticulum (storage area), the omasum (where water is absorbed), and the abomasum ( the only compartment with digestive juices).

A notch in a tree will remain the same distance from the ground as the tree grows.

A panagram is a sentence that contains all 26 letters of the English alphabet. For example: Pack my red box with five dozen quality jugs.

A peanut is not a nut or a pea, it's a legume.

A penguin swims at a speed of approximately 15 miles per hour.

A perfect game in baseball is one in which the same player pitches the entire game without allowing any player of the opposing team to reach first base -by any means.

A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet.

A person has to travel west to get from Los Angeles, CA to Reno, NV. A person uses approximently fifty-seven sheets of toilet paper each day.


A person who is lost in the woods and starving can obtain nourishment by chewing on his shoes. Leather has enough nutritional value to sustain life for a short time.

A person will die from total lack of sleep sooner than from starvation. Death will occur about 10 days without sleep, while starvation takes a few weeks.

A piano leg went through the floor of the white house in 1948 during President Truman's term.

A pied-billed grebe is called a peebeegeebee by birdwatchers.

A pig is the only animal than can get sunburned.

A pig's orgasm lasts for 30 minutes.

A pineapple is a berry.

A poem written to celebrate a wedding is called an epithalamium.

A polar bears skin is black. Its fur is actually clear, but like snow it appears white.

A pole vaulter, when he lands, may absorb up to 20,000 pounds of pressure per square inch on the joints of his tubular thigh bones.

A polecat is not a cat. It is a nocturnal European weasel.

A poll of 3,000 Americans found that for 41 percent, the thing they're most afraid of is speaking before a group of people. 32 percent stated they were afraid of heights.

A porpoise swims slowly in a circle as it sleeps.

A Portsmouth, Ohio law ranks baseball players with "vagrants, thieves and other suspicious characters."

A pound of grasshoppers is three times as nutritious as a pound of beef.

A pregnant goldfish is called a twit

A quarter of raw potato placed in each shoe at night will keep the leather soft and the shoes smelling fresh and clean.

A quarter of the horses in the US died of a vast virus epidemic in 1872.

A queen bee lays about 1,500 eggs on an average day.

A raisin dropped in a glass of fresh champagne will bounce up and down continuously from the bottom of the glass to the top.

A rat can go without water longer than a camel can.

A rattlesnake's fangs fold inward when its mouth is closed so it doesn't bite itself.

A recent study indicates when men crave food, they tend to crave fat and salt. When women crave food, they tend to desire chocolate.

A Red Giant(a kind of exploded star) has a lower density than any vacuum here on earth

A rhinoceros horn is made of compacted hair.

A Saudi Arabian woman can get a divorce if her husband doesn't give her coffee.

A scientific report form the University of California found that the steam rising from a cup of coffee contains the same amounts of antioxidants as three oranges. The antioxidants are heterocyclic compounds which prevents cancer and heart disease. It's good for you!

A scientist who weighed people immediately before and after death concluded that the human soul weighs 21 gms.

A scrum in rugby is equivalent of a hockey face-off, except that it involves all playing the forward position on both teams.

A SEAL's weapon of choice is the Heckler and Koch MP-5 submachine gun.

A shark can detect one part of blood in 100 million parts of water.

A shark can grow a new set of teeth in a week.

A shark is the only fish that can blink with both eyes.

A shrimp's heart is in its head.

A single drop of water contains one hundred billion billion atoms.

A single share of Coca-Cola stock, purchased in 1919, when the company went public, would have been worth $92,500 in 1997.

A snail can actually glide over the sharp edge of a knife or razor without harming itself. This has something to do with the mucus it produces.

A snail can have about 25,000 teeth.

A snail can sleep for 3 years.

A snail can travel over a razor blade without cutting itself.

A sneeze can exceed the speed of 100 mph.

A soccer ball has 32 panels.

A speleologist studies caves.

A Sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure.

A spremologer collects trivia.

A starfish can turn its stomach inside out.

A state law in Illinois mandates that all bachelors should be called master, not mister, when addressed by their female counterparts.

A strand of spider web may be stronger than an equal diameter of steel.

A study of pet owners found that 66% claimed they allowed their pets to remain in the bedroom during intercourse.

A teaspoon of neutron star material weighs about 110 million tons.

A ton of potatoes will yield 28.6 gallons of absolute alcohol. Potatoes are an important source for commercial alcohol.

A total of 63 errors were made in the 1886 World Series.

A traditional dish from Savolax, called "kalakukko" (fishcock in engl.) is made of white fish and porkfat encased in a baked crust of rye.

A two-inch garden hose will carry four times as much water as a one-inch hose.

A type of rabbit can mate 12 hours after giving birth

A typical American eats 28 pigs in his/her lifetime.

A typical bed usually houses over 6 billion dust mites.

A typical lightning bolt is two to four inches wide and two miles long.

A vexillologist is an expert in the history of flags

A volcano can shoot its debris as high as 50km into the sky.

A vulture will never attack a human or animal that is moving.

A whale's penis is called a dork.

A whip makes a cracking sound because its tip moves faster than the speed of sound.

A whole library floor of books can be stored on 50 Gigabytes.

A wind with a speed of 74 miles or more is designated a hurricane.

A women's heart beats faster than men.

A woodchuck only breathes 10 times during hibernation.

A woodpecker can peck twenty times a second.

A word or sentence that is the same front and back (racecar, kayak) is called a "palindrome".

A young lady named Ellen Church convinced Boeing Air Transport that her nursing skills and love of flying would qualify her to assist with the passengers and emergencies. She became the first known stewardess.

A zebra is white with black stripes.

ABBA GOLD has been in the UK charts for over 280 weeks, thats over 5 years

Abdul Kassam Ismael, Grand Vizier of Persia in the tenth century, carried his library with him wherever he went. Four hundred camels carried the 117,000 volumes.

Abe Lincoln's mother died when the family dairy cow ate poisonous mushrooms and Ms. Lincoln drank the milk.

About 10% of the world's population is left-handed.

About 10,000,000 people have the same birthday as you.

About 100 people choke to death on ballpoint pens each year.

About 20% of bird species have become extinct in the past 200 years, almost all of them because of human activity.

About 200,000,000 M&Ms are sold each day in the United States.

About 24% of the total ground area of Los Angeles is said to be committed to automobiles.

About 55% of all movies are rated R. About 500 movies are made in the US and 800 in India annually.

About 70% of Americans who go to college do it just to make more money.

About 75% of the people in the U.S. live on 2% land.

About 80% of the city was burned in the Great Fire of London in 1666.

About a third of all Americans flush the toilet while they're still sitting on it.

About one-tenth of the earth's surface is permanently covered with ice.

Facetious and abstemious are the only words that contain all the vowels in the correct order.

"Adcomsubordcomphibspac" is the longest acronym. It is a Navy term standing for Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet Subordinate Command.

"Almost" is the longest commonly used word in the English language with all the letters in alphabetical order.

"Flushable" toilets were in use in ancient Rome.

"Billie Jean" by Michael Jackson was the first video to air on MTV by a black artist. "Canada" is an Indian word meaning "Big Village".


"Dreamt" is the only English word that ends in the letters "mt".

"Duff" is the decaying organic matter found on a forest floor.

"Fickleheaded" and "fiddledeedee" are the longest words consisting only of letters in the first half of the alphabet.

"Asthma" and "isthmi" are the only six-letter words that begin and end with a vowel and have no other vowels between.

"Fortnight" is a contraction of "fourteen nights." In the US "two weeks" is more commonly used.

"Forty" is the only number which has its letters in alphabetical order. "One" is the only number with its letters in reverse alphabetical order.

"Four" is the only number whose number of letters in the name equals the number.

"Hang on Sloopy" is the official rock song of Ohio.

"Happy Birthday" was the first song to be performed in outer space, sung by the Apollo IX astronauts on March 8, 1969.

"Kemo Sabe", meaning an all knowing one, is actually a mispronunciation by Native American of the Spanish phrase, Quien lo Sabe, meaning one who knows."

The lunula is the half-moon shaped pale area at the bottom of finger nails.

"Ma is as selfless as I am" can be read the same way backwards. If you take away all the spaces you can see that all the letters can be spelled out both ways.

"Mad About You" star Paul Reiser plays the piano on the show's theme song.

"One thousand" contains the letter A, but none of the words from one to nine hundred ninety-nine has an A.

"Ough" can be pronounced in eight different ways. The following sentence contains them all: "A rough-coated, dough-faced ploughman strode through the streets of Scarborough, coughing and hiccoughing thoughtfully.

"Rhythms" is the longest English word without the normal vowels, a, e, i, o, or u.

"Second string," meaning "replacement or backup," comes from the middle ages. An archer always carried a second string in case the one on his bow broke.

"Speak of the Devil" is short for "Speak of the Devil and he shall come". It was believed that if you spoke about the Devil it would attract his attention. That's why when you're talking about someone and they show up people say "Speak of the Devil."

"Stewardesses" is the longest word that can be typed with only the left hand.

"Tautonyms" are scientific names for which the genus and species are the same.

"Taxi" is spelled exactly the same in English, French, German, Swedish, Portuguese, and Dutch.

"Teh" means "cool" in Thai. (Pronounced "tay").

"The sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick" is said to be the toughest tongue twister in English.

"THEREIN" is a seven-letter word that contains thirteen words spelled using consecutive letters: the, he, her, er, here, I, there, ere, rein, re, in, therein, and herein.

"Underground" is the only word in the English language that begins and ends with the letters "und." $203,000,000 is spent on barbed wire each year in the U.S.

1 and 2 are the only numbers where they are values of the numbers of the factors they have.

1 in 5,000 north Atlantic lobsters are born bright blue. 1 in every 3 people in the country of Israel use a cell phone.


1 kg (2.2 pounds) of lemons contain more sugar than 1 kg of strawberries.

1,525,000,000 miles of telephone wire are strung across the Unites States.

1.7 litres of saliva is produced each day. In Discovery Channel, its a quart.

10 percent of all human beings ever born are alive at this very moment.

10% of human dry weight comes from bacteria

11% of the world is left-handed.

111, 111, 111 X 111, 111, 111 = 12, 345, 678, 987, 654, 321

1200 equals 1 pound (72 rupees).

123,000,000 cars are being driven on highways in the United States.

166,875,000,000 pieces of mail are delivered each year in the United States.

1959's A Raisin in the Sun was the first play by a black woman to be produced on Broadway.

2 and 5 are the only prime numbers that end in 2 or 5.

203 million dollars is spent on barbed wire each year in the U.S.

22,000 checks will be deducted from the wrong bank accounts in the next hour.

23% of all photocopier faults worldwide are caused by people sitting on them and photocopying their buttocks.

25% of a human's bones are in its feet.

259200 people die every day. 27% of Americans believe we never landed on the moon.


27% of U.S. male college students believe life is "a meaningless existential hell."

3% of all mammals are monogamous

315 entries in Webster's 1996 dictionary were misspelled.

315 words in the 1996 Webster's dictionary were mispelled.

4 tablespoons of ketchup has about the same amount of nutrition as a ripe tomato.

40% of all people who come to a party snoop in your medicine cabinet.

40% of McDonald's profits come from the sales of Happy Meals.

43.7% of all statistics are made up right on the spot

48% of astronauts experience motion sickness.

52% of Americans drink coffee.

55.1% of all US prisoners are in prison for drug offenses.

56,000,000 people go to Major League baseball games each year

67 million pounds of pesticides and about 3 million tons of fertilizer are used annually on lawns in the US.

78 rpm albums, used prior to 1948, were only capable of recording for four minutes. It wasn’t until later that year that Columbia Records introduced 33 rpm albums capable of playing 23 minutes per side.

80% of animals on earth are insects.

80% of arrested criminals are male.

In Disney's Fantasia, the Sorcerer to whom Mickey played an apprentice was named Yensid, which is Disney spelled backward.

By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you cannot sink into quicksand.

One in ten people live on an island.

84% of a raw apple is water.

It takes more calories to eat a piece of celery than the celery has in it to begin with.

85% of men who die of heartattacks during intercourse, are found to have been cheating on their wives.

85,000,000 tons of paper are used in the United States each year.

28% of Africa is classified as wilderness. In North America, its 38%.

Charlie Chaplin once won third prize in a Charlie Chaplin look-alike contest.

Chewing gum while peeling onions will keep you from crying.

90% of bird species are monogamous; only 3% of animals are.

90% of New York City cab drivers are recently arrived immigrants.

98% of all murders and rapes are by a close family member or friend of the victim.

98% of the weight of water is made up from oxygen.

99% of the pumpkins sold in the US end up as jack-o-lanterns.

A "2 by 4" is really 1 1/2 by 3 1/2.

A "Blue Moon" is the second full moon in a calendar month (it is rarely blue).

A "hairbreadth away" is 1/48 of an inch.

A "jiffy" is actually a proper time unit for 1/100th of a second

A "quidnunc" is a person who is eager to know the latest news and gossip.

A 1,200-pound horse eats about seven times it's own weight each year.

A 1.5 oz. milk chocolate bar has only 220 calories. A 1.75 oz. serving of potato chips has 230 calories.

A 10-gallon hat actually only holds about 3/4 gallon.

A 14-year old French girl had extraordinary electrical power. With a gentle touch she could knock over heavy pieces of furniture and people in physical contact with her received an electrical shock.

A 17 year old girl from Miami, Florida started to sneeze on 4th January'66 ant continued till 8th June'66.

A 6 pound sea-hare can lay 40,000eggs in a single minute.

A 7-year study, which concluded in the summer of 2000, found that 33 U.S. deaths were caused by rottweilers, pit bulls were responsible for 27 deaths.

A acre of coffee trees can produce up to 10,000 pounds of coffee cherries. That amounts to approximately 2000 pounds of beans after hulling or milling.

A B-25 bomber crashed into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building on July 28, 1945.

A Baboon called "Jackie" became a private in the South African army in World War I.

A bat is the only mammal that flies.

A bathometer is an instrument for indicating the depth of the sea beneath a moving vessel.

A bean has more DNA per cell than a human cell

A bee could travel 4 million miles (6.5 million km) at 7 mph (11 km/h) on the energy it would obtain from 1 gallon (3.785 liters) of nectar, or it could just sit down on and enjoy that honey properly.

A beaver's teeth never stop growing.

A bibliophile is a collector of rare books. A bibliopole is a seller of rare books.

A bird requires more food in proportion to its size than a baby or a cat.

A Blue Earth, Minnesota, law declares that no child under the age of twelve may talk over the telephone unless monitored by a parent.

A blue whales heart only beats nine times per minute.

A body decomposes four times as fast in water than on land.

A Boeing 747's wingspan is longer than the Wright brother's first flight.

A bowling pin only needs to tilt 7.5 degrees to fall.

A broken clock is right at least twice a day.

A butterfly can look at you through 12,000 eyes.

A Californian doctor has set the record of eating 17 bananas in two minutes.

A Canadian tattoo artist had 4,831 tattoos on his body.

A capon is a castrated rooster.

A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.

A cat has 4 rows of whiskers.

A cat uses it's whiskers to determine if a space is too small to squeeze through.

A chameleon can move its eyes in two directions at the same time.

A chameleon's tongue is twice the length of its body.

A Cheetah at full speed takes strides of 8 meters.

A cheetah is the fastest animal, clocked in at: 70mph.

A chef's hat is tall and balloons at the top so as to counteract the intense heat in the kitchen. The unique shape allows air to circulate around the scalp, keeping the head cool.

A Chicago law forbids eating in a place that is on fire.

A chicken who just lost its head can run the length of a football field before dropping dead.

A chimpanzee can learn to recognize itself in a mirror, but monkeys can't.

A citizen of Calcutta, India , grew the fingernails on his left hand to a length of 76 inches.

A cluster of bananas is called a hand and consists of 10 to 20 bananas, which are known as fingers.

A cockroach can live nine days without its head before it starves to death.

A cockroaches favorite food is the glue on the back of stamps.

A company, Warner Communications paid $28 million for the copyright to the song "Happy Birthday".

A Cornish game hen is really a young chicken, usually 5 to 6 weeks of age, that weighs no more than 2 pounds.

A cough releases an explosive charge of air that moves at speeds up to 60 mph.

A cow gives nearly 200,000 glasses of milk in her lifetime.

A cow produces 200 times more gas a day than a person.

A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out.

A crocodiles tongue is attached to the roof of its mouth.

A cucumber is 96% water.

A Dalmatian is the only dog that can get gout.

A day on the planet Mercury is twice as long as its year.

A decree declares that anyone caught stealing soap must wash himself with it until it is all used up.

A dentist invented the Electric Chair.

A device invented sometime around the time of the birth of Jesus as a primitive steam engine by the Greek engineer Hero is used today as a rotating sprinkler.

A diamond will not dissolve in acid. The only thing that can destroy it is intense heat.

A dime has 118 ridges around the edge. A quarter has 119.

A dog can hear high frequency sounds, which a human ear cannot.

A donkey will sink in quicksand but a mule will not.

A dragonfly can fly 25 mph.

A dragonfly has a life span of 24 hours.

A dragonfly is also known as "devil's darning needle", "horse stinger" and "devil's steelyard".

A Fag is to work hard or to tire by strenuous activity and cigarettes are sometimes called Fags

A fagot is a bundle of sticks or a bundle of pieces of wrought iron to be shaped by rolling or hammering at high temperature.

A father Emperor penguin withstands the Antarctic cold for 60 days or more to protect his eggs, which he keeps on his feet, covered with a feathered flap. During this entire time he doesn't eat a thing. Most father penguins lose about 25 pounds while they wait for their babies to hatch. Afterward, they feed the chicks a special liquid from their throats. When the mother penguins return to care for the young, the fathers go to sea to eat and rest.

A father sea catfish keeps the eggs of his young in his mouth until they are ready to hatch. He will not eat until his young are born, which may take several weeks.

A female ferret will die if it goes into heat and cannot find a mate.

A female mackerel lays about 500,000 eggs at one time.

A female swine or sow will always have an even number of teats or nipples.

A fetus acquires fingerprints at the age of three months.

A fingernail or toenail takes about 6 months to grow from base to tip.

A fish's memory span is 3 seconds.

A five and a half year old weighing 250 pounds was exhibited at a meeting of the Physical Society of Vienna on December 4, 1894. She ate a normal diet and was otherwise in good health. The problem: she wasn't able to sweat.

A flea can jump 350 times is own body length. (say..you jumping the length of a soccer field)thanx seraph

A flock of sheep grazed during Woodrow Wilson's term. Their wool was sold to raise money for the Red Cross during World War I.

A fly always jumps backwards for a quick getaway when you try to hit it.

A fly hums in the middle octave, key F.

A foal is a baby horse.

A full moon is nine times brighter than a half moon.

A full-grown bear can run as fast as a horse.

A full-grown pumpkin has about 15 miles of roots.

A ghost writer pens an anonymous book.

A giant squid has eyes that can grow up to 20 inches in diameter. (Now think of how big your computer screen is..)

A giraffe and rat can go longer without water than a camel can.

A giraffe can clean its ears with its 21-inch tongue. i know some people who can do some amazing stuff too.

A goldfish has a memory span of 3 seconds.

A googol is a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Mathematician Edward Kasner supposedly asked his nephew Milton Sirotta to suggest a name for the number, and he came up with this word.

A grasshopper needs a minimum temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit in order to be able to hop.

A group od geese on the ground is a gaggle, a group in the air is a skein.

A group of crows is called a murder.

A hamlet is a village without a church and a town is not a city until it has a cathedral.

A hard-boiled egg will spin. An uncooked or soft-boiled egg will not.

A healthy (non-colorblind) human eye can distinguish between 500 shades of gray.

A healthy individual releases 3.5 oz. of gas in a single flatulent emission, or about 17 oz. in a day.

A hedgehog's heart beats 190 times a minute on average and drops to only 20 beats per minute during hibernation.

A hedgehog's skin is so tough that when they get run over, its entrails come out of its mouth and its ass.

A herd of forty-five thirsty, rambunctious elephants stampeded into a brewery in Midnapore, where they smashed vats and slurped up beer in a bender that went on for two days.

A hinny is the offspring of a female donkey. A hippo can open its mouth wide enough to fit a 4 foot tall child inside.


A hippopotamus can run faster than a man can.

A Holstein's spots are like a fingerprint or snowflake. No two cows have exactly the same pattern of spots.

A honey bee must tap two million flowers to make one pound of honey

A honey bee travels an estimated 43,000 miles to gather one pound of honey. A pound of honey consists of 29,184 drops.

A honeybee can fly at fifteen miles per hour.

A horse can sleep standing up.

A Horse has 18 more bones than a Human.

A human being loses an average of 40 to 100 strands of hair a day.

A human has a bone just after the spine ends, which helps proves that humans once had tails (possibly).

A human head remains conscious for about 15 to 20 seconds after it is been decapitated.

A human's scent membrane in the nose is about the size of a postage stamp. A dog's is about the size of a handkerchief. It's olfactory lobe is also 4 times that of a humanThanx liz chell

A humming bird flaps its wings up to 90 times in one second or over 5000 times a minute.

A hummingbird weighs less than a penny

All the moons of the Solar System are named after Greek and Roman mythology, except the moons of Uranus, which are named after Shakespearean characters.

All the proceeds earned from James M. Barrie's book "Peter Pan" were bequeathed to the Great Ormond Street Hospital for the Sick Children in London.

All the swans in England are property of the Queen.

All the world's main alphabets have developed from an alphabet invented 3,600 years ago in the Middle East. It was known as the North Semitic Alphabet.

All traffic stopped as people switched sides. This time and day were chosen to prevent accidents where drivers would have gotten up in the morning and been too sleepy to realize 'this' was the day of the changeover.

All U.S. Presidents have worn glasses, some of them just didn't like to be seen with them in public.

All US Presidents have worn glasses. Some just didn't like being seen wearing them in public.

All words ever spoken by human beings on 5 Exabytes.

Alligators can live for more than 100 years.

Almonds and pistachios are the only nuts mentioned in the Bible.

Almonds are members of the peach family.

Almonds are part of the peach family.

Almonds are the oldest, most widely cultivated and extensively used nuts in the world.

Almost without exception, cows are milked from the right side. The reason is because most farmers have been right-handed since the start of the dairy business and it's easier for a right-handed milker to work from the right side.

Although Argentina's name means "Land of Silver," there is actually very little silver there. It was misnamed by explorers who thought they saw silver there.

Although construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Strasbourg started in 1015, it was not until 1439 that the spire was completed.

Although explorers brought potatoes back from the New World in the early 1500s, Europeans were afraid to eat them for fear that the spuds would give them leprosy. It wasn't until Louis XVI, who was looking for a cheap food source for his starving subjects, served them at the royal table that people were convinced potatoes were safe to eat.

Although identified with Scotland, bagpipes are actually a very ancient instrument, introduced into the British Isles by the Romans.

Although not named in the New Testament, tradition names the two thieves crucified at the same time as Jesus as Dismas and Gestas.

Although the Pony Express was one of the most famous chapters in U.S. history, it only lasted one year, from 1860-61.

Amazon ants (red ants found in the western U.S.) steal the larvae of other ants to keep as slaves. The slave ants build homes for and feed the Amazon ants, who cannot do anything but fight. They depend completely on their slaves for survival.

Amelia Earhart designed the first lightweight luggage for air travel.

American Airlines saved $40,000 in 1987 by eliminating 1 olive from each salad served in first-class.

American and Russian space flights have always included chocolate.

American car horns beep in the tone of F.

American chocolate manufacturers use about 1.5 billion pounds of milk -only surpassed by the cheese and ice cream industries.

Americans are responsible for about 1/5 of the world's garbage annually. On average, that's 3 pounds a day per person.

Americans consume 42 tons of aspirin per day.

Americans consumed over 3.1 billion pounds of chocolate in 2001, which is almost half of the total world's production.

Americans drink about five billion bottles and cans of soda, and about a billion and a half pounds of coffee every year.

Americans drink over a billion pounds of coffee every year and around five million bottles of soda.

Americans eat more bananas than any other fruit: a total of 11 billion a year.

Americans on average eat 18 acres of pizza every day.

Americans spend approximately $25 billion each year on beer.

Americans spend more than $5 billion a year on cosmetics, toiletries, beauty parlors and barber shops.

Americans spent an estimated $267 billion dining out in 1993.

Americans spent over $360 million in 1982 to avoid having bad breath.

Americans use about 100 million pounds of tea leaves every year.

Americans use over 16, 000 tons of aspirin a year.

Americans, on average, eat 18 acres of pizza in one day.

America's first nudist organization was founded in 1929, by 3 men.

America's first stock exchange was the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, established in 1791.

Among primitive people the soul normally is said to escape through the mouth or nose. In the Celebes, when a person is very sick, his friends will often attach fish hooks in certain places. If the soul tries to escape, it gets hooked.

Among transsexuals who choose sex-change operations, females who elect to become males are reportedly happier and better adjusted after the procedures than males who elect to become female.

Among words consisting only of Roman numeral letters, the "highest scoring" words in English are MIMIC (2,102) and IMMIX (2012).

An adult lion's roar can be heard up to five miles away, and warns off intruders or reunites scattered members of the pride.

An adult male ostrich, the world's largest bird, can weigh up to 345 pounds.

An adult porcupine has approximately 30,000 quills on its body, which are replaced every year.

An African American chef in Albany, NY is thought to have been the inventor of potato chips sometime in 1865. Unfortunately, nobody knows his name.

An albatross can sleep while it flies. It apparently dozes while cruising at 25 mph.

An American cow called Fawn was not afraid of flying. In May 1963, she was swept up by a tornado and carried half a mile, only to land safely in another farmer's field. Five years later, another tornado carried her over a bus. She survived this too, and lived to the ripe old age of 25.

An American urologist bought Napoleon's penis for $40,000.

An animal epidemic is called an epizootic.

An ant always falls over on its right side when intoxicated.

An ant can survive for up to two days underwater.

An ant's sense of smell is as good as a Dog's.

An apple tree is at its prime when its about 50 years old. The United States produces about 100 million barrels of apples a year. That's a lot of old trees.

An apple, onion, and potato all have the same taste. The differences in flavor are caused by their smell. To prove this you can pinch your nose and take a bite from each. They will all taste sweet.

An arabica coffee tree can produce up to 12 pounds of coffee a year, depending on soil and climate.

An area of the Sun's surface the size of a postage stamp shines with the power of 1,500,000 candles.

An artificial hand , with fingers moved by cogwheels and levers, was designed in 1551 by Frenchman Ambroise Paré. It worked so well that a handless cavalryman was able to grasp the reins of his horse.

An Athens legislator named Solon passed a law in the 6th century that let fathers sell their fornicating daughters into slavery. An average beaver can cut down two hundred trees a year.


An average ear of corn has 800 kernels, arranged in 16 rows.

An average human drinks about 16, 000 gallons of water in a lifetime.

An average human scalp has 100,00 hairs.

An average person drinks about 16,000 gallons of wate during his life time.

An average person laughs about 5 times a day.

An average person uses the bathroom 6 times per day.

An average pig squeals at a range from 100 to 115 decibels.

An average secretary's left hand does 56% of the typing.

An eagle can kill a young deer and fly away with it.

An ear of corn always has an even number of rows because of the genetic formula which divides the cells.

An ear of corn averages 800 kernels in 16 rows.

An earthquake on Dec. 16, 1811 sent the Mississippi River backwards.

An electric eel can produce a shock of up to 650 volts.

An elephant can smell water 3 miles away.

An elephant could carry up to 2 gallons of water in its trunk.

An elephant has 4 knees

An elephant may consume 500 pounds of hay and 60 gallons of water in a single day.

An elephant's trunk contains more than 50,000 muscles.

An Estee Lauder perfume called "Country Mist" had disappointing sales in Germany where the word "Mist" was slang for manure!

An estimated $1 million is lost at race tracks each year by people who lose or carelessly throw away winning tickets.

An etiquette writer of the 1840's advised, "Ladies may wipe their lips on the tablecloth, but not blow their noses on it."

An eyelash lives about 5 months.

An iguana can stay under water for 28 minutes.

An individual blood cell takes about 60 seconds to make a complete circuit of the body.

An insect exerts so much energy in one hour of flying that it may lose as much as a third of its total body weight.

An Octopus has 3 hearts!

An old law in Bellingham, Washington made it illegal for a woman to take more than 3 steps backwards while dancing.

An ordinance in Newcastle, Wyoming, specifically bans couples from having sex while standing inside a store's walk-in-meat freezer!

An ostrich egg can make approx. eleven and a half omelets.

An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain.

An ounce of gold can be beaten up into a sheet covering 9.3 sq. meters, or drawn into 80.5 kms(50 miles) of wire.

An ounce of gold can be stretched into a wire 50 miles long.

An owl cannot move it's eyeballs in its eye sockets.

An oyster can change it's sex a number of times during its life.

An oyster can change its sex once every seven days.

Anagrams amused the ancient Greeks, Romans and Hebrews, and were popular during the Middle Ages.

Ancient Chinese artists freely painted scenes of nakedness and sex. However, they would absolutely never depict a bare female foot.

Ancient Chinese artists would never paint pictures of women's feet.

Ancient Egyptian priests would pluck every hair from their bodies.

Ancient Egyptians believed that "Bast" was the mother of all cats on Earth. They also believed that cats were sacred animals.

Ancient Egyptians shaved off their eyebrows to mourn the death of their cats.

Andorra, a tiny country on the border between France and Spain, has the longest average lifespan: 83.49 years.

Andrew Jackson spent most of his adult life with a bullet no more than two inches away from his heart as a result of a duel he fought before becoming President.

Andrew Johnson, was the only self-educated tailor. He is the only President to make his own clothes as well as his cabinet's.

Andy Warhol based his 1964 series of silk portraits of Marilyn Monroe on a still photo from the 1952 movie Niagra.

Andy Warhol created the Rolling Stone's emblem depicting the big tongue. It first appeared on the cover of the 'Sticky Fingers' album.

Animal gestation periods: the shortest is the American opossum, which bears its young 12 to 13 days after conception; the longest is the Asiatic elephant, taking 608 days, or just over 20 months.

Animals that lay eggs don't have belly buttons.

Anne Boleyn had three breasts.

Anne Boleyn, Queen Elizabeth I's mother, had six fingers on one hand.

Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I, had an extra finger on her left hand.

Annually, approximately 46 millions Cokes, five million pounds of French fries, and seven million hamburgers are consumed at Walt Disney World Resort.

Another law in Helena, Montana, mandates that a woman can't dance on a table in a saloon or bar unless she has on at least three pounds, two ounces of clothing.

Another name for your pinky finger is Wanus

Antarctica has only one ATM machine.

Antarctica is the only continent without any reptiles or snakes.

Antarctica is visited by over 10,000 tourists a year.

Anteaters prefer termites to ants.

Anthropologists use a standard height of 4 feet 11 inches to determine if a group of people are pygmies. The average adult male must be less than 59 inches in height.

Ants are social insects and live in colonies which may have as many as 500,000 individuals.

Ants can live completely submerged underwater for up to 2 days.

Ants make up 1/10 of the total world animal tissue

Any free-moving liquid in outer space will form itself into a sphere, because of it's surface tension.

Any month that starts on a Sunday will have a Friday the 13th in it.

Anyone could come to Andrew Jackson's public parties at the White House. At his last one, a wheel of cheese weighing 1,400 lbs. was eaten in two hours. The White House smelled of cheese for weeks.

Aphids are born pregnant without the benefit of sex. Aphids can give birth 10 days after being born themselves.

Apparently 1/3 of people with alarm clocks hit the 'snooze' button every morning, and from 25-34 age group, it is over 1/2. (r u 1 of them?)

Apparently there's a law stating that if a Kurtatchi woman of the Soloman Islands unintentionally reveals her genitals, it can be expected and will be understood if any nearby man sexually assaults her.

Apparently, according to Playtex, the best selling bra sizes these days are 34B and 36B.

Apparently, I misspelled it...it's "Sinterklaas." Thanks to the unnamed person from Holland who corrected me.

Apple pie was brought to England from France sometime around 1066 by William the Conqueror. It made it to America when the Pilgrims arrived.

Apple pits contain cyanide.

Apples are more effecient than caffeine for waking you up in the morning.

Approximate number of facial expressions dogs can make: 100.

Approximately 125 people die in the United States from an anaphylaxis to foods each year.

Approximately 20% of Americans have a passport.

Approximately 200 pets are buried in a pet cemetery out of the thousands of pets that die each day.

Approximately 25,000 workers died during the building of the Panama Canal, and approximately 20,000 of them contracted malaria and yellow fever.

Approximately 40,000 tons of meteoric dust hits the Earth each year.

Approximately 850 peanuts make a 18 oz jar of peanut butter.

Approximately one out of four injuries by athletes involve the wrist and hand.

Arabic numerals are not really Arabic; they were invented in India.

Argentineans eat more meat than any other nation in the world an average of 10 ounces per person per day.

Aristedes won the first Kentucky Derby in 1875.

Armadillos along with humans are the other creatures that can contract leprosy.

Armadillos can be house broken.

Armadillos can have up to four babies at a time and they are always all the same sex.

Armored knights raised their visors to identify themselves when they rode past their king. This custom has become the modern military salute.

Army doctor D.W. Bliss attended to two presidents after they were shot by assassins. In 1865 he was one of the 16 doctors who tried to save Abraham Lincoln. In 1881 he supervised the care of James Garfield.

Around 2,000 left-handed people die annually due to improper use of equipment designed only for right handed people.

Around 22% of Americans are teenagers.

Around the 16th century the Yo-Yo was used by Philipinos to stun prey from trees.

Arrowroot, an antidote for poisoned arrows, is used as a thickener in cooking.

As artists and traders in medieval cities began to form organizations, they instituted tough initiation ceremonies. For example, journeymen in Bergen, Norway, were shoved down a chimney, thrown three times into the sea, and soundly whipped.

As bananas ripen, the starch in the fruit turns to sugar. Therefore, the riper the banana the sweeter it will taste.

As late as 1820, the universe was thought to be 6,000 years old. It is now thought to be between 15 and 20 billion years old.

As mentioned, the first Fords used Dodge engines. Many ford vehicles now use Nissan engines, especially in Mini-vans.

As much as 80% of microwaves from mobile phones are absorbed by YOUR HEAD! visit microshield

As of 14.10.2003, only 0.6% of people actually sign the guestbook. Its true. Over 120,000 visitors. Yes, the statistic did go down.

As of 1996, Hee Haw holds the record for the longest running weekly first-run syndicated show in the history of television. It spanned over 4 decades, from the late '60s to the early '90s, airing every Saturday night at 7:00.

As of 2004, there are two men for every woman in the United Arab Emirates.

As of Dec. 31, 2000, the number of climbers summiting Mt. Everest reached 1314, and the number of deaths on the mountain reached 167.

As specified by the Christian church, the canonical hours are matins, lauds, prime, terce, sext, none, vespers, and compline.

Aspirin was the first drug offered as a water-soluble tablet in 1900.

Aspirin went on sale as the first pharmaceutical drug in 1899, after Felix Hoffman, a German chemist at the drug company Bayer, successfully modified Salicylic Acid, a compound found in willow bark to produce Aspirin.

Assuming that all the offspring survived, 190,000,000,000,000,000,000 flies could be produced in four months by the offspring of a single pair of flies.

Astronaut John Glenn ate the first meal in space when he ate pureed applesauce squeezed from a tube aboard Friendship 7 in 1962.

Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper was so relaxed on the morning of his launch into space in May 1963 that he fell asleep in his space capsule while waiting for blastoff.

Astronaut Neil Armstrong first stepped on the moon with his left foot.

Astronauts are not allowed to eat beans before they go into space because passing wind in a spacesuit damages them.

Astronauts become between two and three inches taller when in space.

Astronauts brought back about 800 pounds of lunar rock to Earth. Most of it has not been analyzed.

Astronauts grow taller in space

At 188 decibels, the whistle of the blue whale is the loudest sound produced by any animal.

At 4,145 miles, the Nile River is the longest in the world.

At -40 degrees fahrenheit,a person loses about 14.4 calories per hour breathing.

At 840,000 square miles, Greenland is the largest island in the world. It is three times the size of Texas. By comparison, Iceland is only 39,800 square miles.

At age 47, the Rolling Stones' bassist, Bill Wyman, began a relationship with 13-year old Mandy Smith, with her mother's blessing. Six years later, they were married, but the marriage only lasted a year. Not long after, Bill's 30-year-old son Stephen married Mandy's mother, age 46. That made Stephen a stepfather to his former stepmother. If Bill and Mandy had remained married, Stephen would have been his father's father-in-law and his own grandpa.

At age seventy, 73% of men are still potent.

At Andrew Jackson's funeral in 1845, his pet parrot had to be removed because it was swearing.

At Arkansas State University two people cannot hold hands while standing in a doorway unless they belong to a union.

At birth, a panda is smaller than a mouse and weighs about four ounces.

At birth, bear cubs weigh between 1/2 1 pound.

At its center, the sun has a density of over a hundred times that of water, and a temperature of 10-20 million degrees Celsius.

At Jack Russell Stadium in Clearwater, Florida, on June 26, 1985, organist Wilbur Snapp played "Three Blind Mice" following a call by umpire Keith O'Connor. The umpire was not amused, and saw to it that Mr. Snapp was ejected from the game.

At one time in India, a fiance was required to deflower his future bride if she died before the wedding. The girl could not be cremated until this ritual was carried out in front of the village priest.

At one time the earth consisted of one land mass and a huge body of water. Geologists today call the land Pangaea (from the Greek words "all land"), while the water was called Panthalassa (from the Greek words "all sea"). Between 180 and 200 million years ago, Pangaea split into two parts: Laurasia, which consisted of North America, Europe and Asia; and Gondwanaland, which consisted of Africa, South America, India, Antarctica and Australia.

At one time, there was a law in India that forbade lower-caste people from casting their shadows on a member of the Brahman (the upper class).